Related Rule
Netherlands
Practice Relating to Rule 25. Medical Personnel
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands defines medical personnel with reference to Article 25 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I and Article 8 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VI-4.
The manual states: “Medical personnel … must be respected and protected.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VI-4.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual states: “Medical personnel … must be respected and protected and must receive aid to fulfil their tasks.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. XI-5 and XI-6.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states:
Medical personnel engaged temporarily or permanently in the care of the wounded and the sick must be able to fulfil their humanitarian tasks under all circumstances. Persons in charge of the administration and operation of medical units and material (for example administrative personnel, cooks and drivers) belong to the medical personnel. This personnel may not be attacked. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-40.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “Medical (and religious) personnel must be respected and protected.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0617.
The manual further states:
Rendering humanitarian assistance never means involvement in the conflict.
Examples:
- The immunity granted to medical personnel is coupled with the obligation of such personnel to refrain from any hostile action.
- No one may be harassed or condemned for helping the wounded or sick. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0224(a).
In its chapter on combatants, the manual states: “The term ‘non-combatant’ is used for anyone who is not a combatant. This includes all civilians … It also includes medical personnel”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0305.
The manual further states:
[Medical and religious personnel] may be held by the adversary only as long as the state of health, spiritual needs and numbers of prisoners of war require. During the time of detention of medical personnel by the adversary, they must at least enjoy the benefits of the Prisoner of War Convention [1949 Geneva Convention III]. They must be returned if the medical or religious activities are not necessary and military circumstances make a return possible. The exception is that medical auxiliaries are treated as prisoners of war. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0618.
In addition, the manual provides: “Military members of the medical and religious personnel are not treated as prisoners of war. The detaining power may require them to lend support and assistance to prisoners of war.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0704.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
Medical and religious personnel must be respected, protected and helped in fulfilling their duties. They may not be forced to carry out tasks incompatible with their humanitarian mission. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1057.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides:
Medical personnel may be armed with pistols, sub-machine guns and rifles, but not with machine guns or other weapons that have to be handled by more than one person, or with weapons that are meant for use against material objects, such as missile launchers and other anti-tank weapons, nor with fragmentation hand grenades and the like. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VI-5.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states:
Medical personnel may not in any way take part in hostilities, but they may be armed. They may, however, only use these weapons to defend themselves or the wounded and sick in their care and not, for example, to prevent being captured by the enemy. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, pp. 7-40/7-41.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
0618. Medical and religious personnel are non-combatants. They may not take part in hostilities. However, medical personnel may bear arms – see point 0621. If they fall into enemy hands, medical personnel are not considered as prisoners of war.
0621. In relation to medical personnel bearing arms, the rule is that they may carry a personal firearm such as a pistol, automatic pistol or rifle. Medical personnel may not be armed with machine guns or other support weapons. They must not bear weapons designed for use against materiel targets, such as rocket launchers and other anti-tank weapons, or fragmentation hand grenades, etc. They may fire their weapons in self-defence, for the defence of the wounded and sick in their care, and to preserve order and calm within the medical institution. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0618 and 0621.