Related Rule
Netherlands
Practice Relating to Rule 146. Reprisals against Protected Persons
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, in the chapter dealing with the protection of prisoners of war, states: “Reprisals against prisoners of war are forbidden.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VII-3.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states: “Protected persons under the laws of war are: … prisoners of war … Reprisals against them must not be taken.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-38.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Reprisals against prisoners of war are prohibited. Prisoners of war are entitled to respect for their persons and their honour. The paramount requirement here is a ban on killing, wounding or endangering prisoners of war. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0711.
In its chapter on methods and means of warfare, the manual states:
In the history of warfare, reprisals carried out have often exceeded the set limits. This has led to the current prohibition, in the humanitarian law of war and specifically in AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I], of reprisals against several groups of people and objects.
The following are now forbidden as reprisals:
- attacks on prisoners of war. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0424.
In its judgment in the Rauter case in 1949, the Special Court of Cassation of the Netherlands, dealing with the limits to reprisals, stated: “Among the limits referred to, the prohibition should especially be mentioned of taking reprisals against prisoners of war, as this was expressly prohibited by Art. 2 of the 1929 [Geneva POW] Convention.” 
Netherlands, Special Court of Cassation, Rauter case, Judgment, 12 January 1949.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, in the chapter dealing with the protection of the wounded and sick and referring to Article 20 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, states: “Measures of reprisal are prohibited against … the wounded [and] sick … in short against all protected persons and objects.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VI-9.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states: “Protected persons under the laws of war are: the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, regardless of whether they are military personnel or civilians … Reprisals against them must not be taken.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-38.
In a chapter dealing with the wounded and sick, the Handbook further states: “Reprisals against [wounded and sick military personnel who have laid down their arms] are prohibited.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-40.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
In the history of warfare, reprisals carried out have often exceeded the set limits. This has led to the current prohibition, in the humanitarian law of war and specifically in AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I], of reprisals against several groups of people and objects.
The following are now forbidden as reprisals:
- attacks on the wounded and sick;
- attacks on shipwreck survivors. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0424.
In its chapter on the protection of the wounded and sick, the manual states:
Reprisal measures against the wounded, sick, medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical means of transport, and in short, against all protected persons and property, are prohibited. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0641.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states that “reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0808.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, in the chapter dealing with the protection of the wounded and sick, states: “Measures of reprisal are prohibited against … medical and religious personnel … in short against all protected persons and objects.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VI-9.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states: “Protected persons under the laws of war are: … medical personnel, both military and civil; religious personnel with the armed forces … Reprisals against them must not be taken.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-38.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states that “reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0808.
The manual further states that “[r]eprisal measures against … medical and religious personnel … are prohibited”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0641.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, in the chapter dealing with the protection of the civilian population and referring to Article 33 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV, states: “A protected person cannot be punished for acts which he/she has not personally committed. Collective punishments are also prohibited.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VIII-2.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
In the history of warfare, reprisals carried out have often exceeded the set limits. This has led to the current prohibition, in the humanitarian law of war and specifically in AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I], of reprisals against several groups of people and objects.
The following are now forbidden as reprisals:
- attacks on the civilian population or civilians. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0424.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states that “reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0808.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, in a chapter dealing with reprisals and referring to Article 51 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, states: “Attacking the civilian population by measures of reprisal is forbidden.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-6; see also p. V-5.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states: “Protected persons under the laws of war are: … personnel of civil defence organizations such as the fire brigade … civilians … Reprisals against them must not be taken.” It further states: “reprisals against the civilian population are prohibited”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, pp. 7-38 and 7-43.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
In the history of warfare, reprisals carried out have often exceeded the set limits. This has led to the current prohibition, in the humanitarian law of war and specifically in AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I], of reprisals against several groups of people and objects.
The following are now forbidden as reprisals:
- attacks on the civilian population or civilians. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0424.
In its chapter on behaviour in battle, the manual states: “Attacks on the civilian population or civilians by way of reprisals are prohibited.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0518.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states that “reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0808.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states that “[i]t is prohibited in all circumstances to direct any form of reprisal against the civilian population or to waive fundamental guarantees as a form of reprisal”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1048.
At the CDDH, the Netherlands introduced an amendment to draft Additional Protocol I on behalf of its sponsors (Austria, Egypt, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines and USSR). 
Austria, Egypt, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines and USSR, New proposal concerning Article 47 draft Additional Protocol I submitted to the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. III, CDDH/III/57, 19 March 1974, p. 210.
The Netherlands stated:
In fact, reprisals could rarely be confined to civilian objects alone and the infliction of suffering on the civilian population would be virtually inevitable … The sponsors of the amendment were in favour of extending [the prohibition of reprisals against civilians] to a complete ban on all reprisals against the civilian population and civilian objects alike. 
Netherlands, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XIV, CDDH/III/SR.14, 6 February 1975, pp. 113–114, § 26.
At the CDDH, during discussions on the protection of civilian objects, the Netherlands stated: “Reprisals on civilian populations were prohibited by international law.” 
Netherlands, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XIV, CDDH/III/SR.16, 10 February 1975, p. 128, § 8.