Related Rule
Netherlands
Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “Individual or mass forcible transfers and deportations are forbidden.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VIII-5, § 5.
The manual considers that “the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the occupied territory” by the occupying power is a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IX-6.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual states: “Forced displacement of civilians is forbidden … Civilians shall not be compelled to leave their own territory for reasons connected with the conflict.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. XI-7.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states that “kidnapping and deportation are forbidden”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0224(f).
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states: “Forced transfer and deportation of groups of people or individuals are prohibited.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0832.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
In principle, forced displacement of civilians (the civilian population) is prohibited. It is permitted only if the safety of the affected civilians or compelling military reasons dictate. Civilians may not be forced to leave their locality for reasons relating to internal armed conflict. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1040.
The Definition of War Crimes Decree (1946) of the Netherlands includes “deportation of civilians” in its list of war crimes. 
Netherlands, Definition of War Crimes Decree, 1946, Article 1.
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, “unlawful deportation or transfer” and “the deportation or transfer of all or part of the population of the occupied territory within or outside this territory” are crimes, when committed in an international armed conflict. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Articles 5(1)(g), 5(2)(d)(i) and 5(5)(d); see also Article 3(1)(e) (forcible transfer of children of a group to another group as part of a genocide campaign) and Article 4(d) (deportation or forcible transfer of population as a crime against humanity).
Under the Act, “giving instructions for the transfer of the civilian population for reasons connected with the conflict, other than on account of the safety of the citizens or where imperatively demanded by the circumstances of the conflict” constitutes a crime in non-international armed conflict. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Article 6(3)(i).
In its judgment in the Zimmerman case in 1949, the Special Court of Cassation of the Netherlands held that the deportation of civilians of occupied territories was a war crime and rejected the accused’s defence of superior orders as “the condemnation of these practices by public opinion must be deemed of general knowledge, and the accused must be deemed to have known they were illegal”. 
Netherlands, Special Court of Cassation, Zimmerman case, Judgment, 21 November 1949.
In 1992, in a statement before the Commission of Foreign Affairs of the Lower House of Parliament concerning the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands stated:
Serbia refuses to recognise the independence and territorial integrity of the Bosnian State and carries out a pure policy of conquest, combined with the deportation of populations. The international community should strongly condemn this policy. 
Netherlands, Lower House of Parliament, Statement by the Minister of Foreign Affairs before the Commission on Foreign Affairs, 1991–1992 Session, Doc. 22 181, No. 22, p. 12.
In 1995, in a letter to the Lower House of Parliament, the Minister of Defence of the Netherlands stated: “The forced evacuation of the local population of Srebrenica, and now also Žepa, must be strongly condemned.” 
Netherlands, Letter from the Minister of Defence to the Lower House of Parliament, 1994–1995 Session, Doc. 22 181, No. 109, p. 6.
In 1996, in a note to the Lower House of Parliament concerning the refugee problem in Africa, the Minister for Development Cooperation of the Netherlands stated: “With respect to refugees and displaced persons, the Netherlands pays as much attention as possible, to prevent, in a comprehensive fashion, that people are displaced and have to flee.” 
Netherlands, Lower House of Parliament, Note by the Minister of Development Cooperation concerning the refugee problem in Africa, 1995–1996 Session, Doc. 24 713, No. 1, p. 28.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides: “The occupying power may undertake the evacuation of a given area if the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VIII-5, § 5.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual states: “Forced displacement … is only authorized if the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. XI-7.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states that “the occupier may evacuate an area if the security of the population or compelling military reasons so require”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0832.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
In principle, forced displacement of civilians (the civilian population) is prohibited. It is permitted only if the safety of the affected civilians or compelling military reasons dictate. Civilians may not be forced to leave their locality for reasons relating to internal armed conflict. Although it is permitted temporarily to evacuate civilians, it is prohibited to move them for reasons relating to race, skin colour, religion or belief, gender, birth or social status or any other such criterion. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1040.
The Population Evacuation Act (1988) of the Netherlands provides that in the event of war or threat of war, a Royal Decree may be issued entitling government ministers to order the evacuation of the population in order to ensure its safety, ensure the continued functioning of society or to enable the armed forces to perform their tasks. 
Netherlands, Population Evacuation Act, 1988, Article 2(1).
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “Although it is permitted temporarily to evacuate civilians, it is prohibited to move them for reasons relating to race, skin colour, religion or belief, gender, birth or social status or any other such criterion.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1040.