Related Rule
Italy
Practice Relating to Rule 58. Improper Use of the White Flag of Truce
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) states that it is prohibited “to use improperly … the flag of parlementaires”. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 9(2).
The manual further states that grave breaches of international conventions and protocols, including “the improper … use of international protective signs”, constitute war crimes. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 85.
Italy’s Law of War Decree (1938), as amended in 1992, provides that it is prohibited “to use improperly the flag of parlementaires”. 
Italy, Law of War Decree, 1938, as amended in 1992, Article 36(1).
Italy’s Wartime Military Penal Code (1941) punishes anyone who “uses improperly … the flag of parlementaires”. 
Italy, Wartime Military Penal Code, 1941, Article 180(4).