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Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) states that participants in a levéeen masse are considered combatants provided they “carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war”.
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 4(c).