Practice Relating to Rule 34. Journalists
Ireland’s Basic LOAC Guide (2005) states:
Journalists engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed conflict are regarded as civilians. They are protected as such under the law of armed conflict so long as they take no action adversely affecting their status as non-combatants. …
If, for example, they are moving in the battle area and are given transport facilities by the forces operating there, they may not assist the latter in beating off an attack or dealing with a sniper.
Under Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 79, is a punishable offence.