Related Rule
Ireland
Practice Relating to Rule 1. The Principle of Distinction between Civilians and Combatants
Under Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 48, is a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Ireland’s Basic LOAC Guide (2005) states: “Enemy combatants and military objectives only may be the object of an attack.” 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 4.
Under Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Articles 48 and 52(2), is a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, 1962, Section 4(1) and (4).
Ireland’s Basic LOAC Guide (2005) states: “Prohibited targets include civilians not taking part in hostilities”. 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 4.
The manual also states:
[P]eaceful “enemy” civilians may in no way be attacked or molested. They are, however, subject to the risks of war and if they are accidentally wounded or killed as a result of legitimate military operations, no guilt attaches to the soldiers concerned. 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 10.
The manual further states: “The prohibition of attacks on civilians … includes all attacks whether committed in offence or defence. 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 10.
The manual notes that “making a civilian or civilians the object of attack” is a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 12.
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that grave breaches of the 1977 Additional Protocol I are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 3(1).
In addition, under the Act, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 51(2), as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Article 13(2), are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).