Practice Relating to Rule 89. Violence to Life
Ethiopia’s Penal Code (1957) provides that in time of war, armed conflict or occupation, the organization, ordering or killing of civilians, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked or prisoners and interned persons constitutes a war crime.
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code (2004) states:
Article 270.- War Crimes against the Civilian Population.
Whoever, in time of war, armed conflict or occupation organizes, orders or engages in, against the civilian population and in violation of the rules of public international law and of international humanitarian conventions:
(p) … carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted Court which affords all the judicial guarantees
is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty-five years, or, in more serious cases, with life imprisonment or death.
Article 271.- War Crimes against Wounded, Sick or Shipwrecked Persons or Medical Services.
(1) Whoever, in the circumstances defined above, organizes, orders or engages in:
(a) killings [of] … wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons, or … members of the medical or first aid service …
is punishable in accordance with Article 270
Article 272.- War Crimes against Prisoners and Interned Persons.
Whoever, in the circumstances defined above:
(a) organizes, orders or engages in killings [of] … prisoners of war or interned persons…
is punishable in accordance with Article 270.
The Criminal Code of 2004 repealed Ethiopia’s Penal Code of 1957.