Related Rule
Ecuador
Practice Relating to Rule 58. Improper Use of the White Flag of Truce
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) states: “Use of the white flag to gain a military advantage over the enemy is unlawful.” 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 12.2.
The manual also states: “Protective signs and symbols may be used only to identify personnel, objects, and activities entitled to protected status which they designate. Any other use is forbidden by international law.” 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 11.10.5.
In addition, the manual states: “The following acts constitute war crimes: … misuse [and] abuse … of flags of truce.” 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 6.2.5(11).