Related Rule
Ecuador
Practice Relating to Rule 48. Attacks against Persons Parachuting from an Aircraft in Distress
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) states:
Parachutists descending from aircraft hors de combat may not be attacked while in the air and, unless they land in a territory controlled by their own forces or launch an attack during their descent, they must be provided an opportunity to surrender upon reaching the ground. Airborne troops, special warfare infiltrators, and intelligence agents parachuting into combat areas or behind enemy lines are not so protected and may be attacked in the air as well as on the ground. Such personnel may not be attacked, however, if they clearly indicate in a timely manner their intention to surrender. 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 11.7.