Practice Relating to Rule 6. Civilians’ Loss of Protection from Attack
Section A. Direct participation in hostilities
In 2010, in the History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, in an exercise asking students to identify IHL violations, provided the following example:
[A commander of operations states:] “Since civilians prepare food and bring it to the soldiers who then fight, they take part in the hostilities. Without that food, the soldiers would not have the strength to fight with us. Thus, they are all soldiers after all, whether they wear a uniform or not. Even if unarmed, civilians who prepare food for the soldiers take part in the hostilities. As a result, soldiers have the right to kill them.
The ministry also stated: “When civilians directly participate in hostilities, they lose their protection against attacks.”
In 2011, in the History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training stated: “When civilians directly participate in hostilities, they lose their protection against attacks.”