Related Rule
Colombia
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Under Colombia’s Instructors’ Manual (1999), the instructor must explain what perfidy is, i.e., “conduct which is prohibited by International Humanitarian Law”. 
Colombia, Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual de Instrucción de la Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, p. 31.
The Report on the Practice of Colombia refers to a draft internal working paper in which the Colombian Government stated that perfidy was prohibited under IHL. 
Report on the Practice of Colombia, 1998, Chapter 4.1, referring to Presidential Council, Proposal of the Government to the Coordinator Guerrillerra Simón Bolívar to humanise war, Draft Internal Working Paper, Part entitled “El Derecho Internacional Humanitario”, § 5.
Colombia’s Operational Law Manual (2009) states:
4. Rules for the conduct of hostilities
c. Restrictions on the means and methods
The means and methods of warfare that can be used are limited. …
… [A]mong the methods that are prohibited under IHL, it is important to underline the following ones:
- the prohibition of killing, injuring or capturing an adversary by resort to perfidy[.] 
Colombia, Manual de Derecho Operacional Manual FF.MM. 3-41 Público, Primera Edición 2009, Comando General de las Fuerzas Militares, aprobado por el Comandante General de las Fuerzas Armadas por Disposición Número 056, 7 December 2009, pp. 40 and 53–55.
[footnote in original omitted]
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict and with intent to harm or attack the adversary, simulates the condition of a protected person”, including the wounded and sick. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Articles 135 and 143.
Colombia’s Directive on IHL (1993) punishes “the perfidious use of … protective signs recognized under the law of war (the white flag … for example).” 
Colombia, Normas de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Directiva Permanente No. 017, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 17 August 1993, Section III(D).
Colombia’s Instructors’ Manual (1999) provides: “Feigning surrender and then attacking is perfidy.” 
Colombia, Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual de Instrucción de la Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, p. 32.
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict, with intent to harm or attack the adversary, … uses improperly … the white flag … of surrender”. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Article 143.
Colombia’s Directive on IHL (1993) punishes “the perfidious use of … protective signs recognized under the law of war (the white flag of parlementaires, for example)”. 
Colombia, Normas de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Directiva Permanente No. 017, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 17 August 1993, Section III(D).
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict, with intent to harm or attack the adversary, … uses improperly … the white flag of parlementaires”. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Article 143.
Colombia’s Directive on IHL (1993) punishes:
the perfidious use of signs and signals, such as the distinctive signs which designate persons or objects specifically protected (… delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross or other recognized humanitarian organizations), … [or of] distinctive signs used for the identification of the medical service. 
Colombia, Normas de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Directiva Permanente No. 017, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 17 August 1993, Section III(D).
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) states that the use of the red cross emblem to hide armaments or to deceive the adversary is “a grave breach of IHL called perfidy”. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 26; see also p. 49.
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict, with intent to harm or attack the adversary, … uses improperly signs of protection such as the Red Cross or the Red Crescent”. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Article 143.
Colombia’s Emblem Law (2004) states: “Abuse of the emblem is understood as perfidious use in accordance with Article 143 of the Colombian Penal Code.” 
Colombia, Emblem Law, 2004, Article 11.
The Law further states: “Any person who abuses the emblem of the red cross in times of armed conflict must be punished in accordance with the Colombian Penal Code.” 
Colombia, Emblem Law, 2004, Article 13.
Colombia’s Decree No. 138 (2005) states: “The abuse of the emblem is understood as the perfidious use of the emblem by medical or religious personnel in accordance with Article 143 of the Colombian Penal Code.” 
Colombia, Decree No. 138, 2005, Article 2; see also Article 13.
Colombia’s Directive on IHL (1993) considers “the perfidious use of … protective signs recognized under the law of war” as a punishable offence. 
Colombia, Normas de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Directiva Permanente No. 017, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 17 August 1993, Section III(D).
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict, with intent to harm or attack the adversary, … uses improperly … the flag of the United Nations or of other intergovernmental organizations”. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Article 143.
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict, with intent to harm or attack the adversary, … uses improperly … signs of protection provided for in international treaties ratified by Colombia”. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Article 143.
Colombia’s Directive on IHL (1993) punishes “the perfidious use of … protective signs recognized under the law of war … [or of] the distinctive signs used for the identification … of civil defence”. 
Colombia, Normas de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Directiva Permanente No. 017, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 17 August 1993, Section III(D).
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict and with intent to harm or attack the adversary, simulates the condition of a protected person”, which includes civilians. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Articles 135 and 143.
In 1995, in a decision concerning the constitutionality of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated: “The feigning of civilian status to injure, kill or capture an adversary constitutes an act of perfidy which is prohibited by the rules of international humanitarian law, as clearly stipulated in Article 37 of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I].” The Court held that, while the 1977 Additional Protocol II does not contain rules on perfidy in situations of non-international armed conflict,
that does not mean that it is authorized, since the treaty must be interpreted in the light of all the humanitarian principles. As stated in the Taormina Declaration, the prohibition of perfidy is one of the general rules governing the conduct of hostilities that applies in non-international armed conflicts. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-225/95, Judgment, 18 May 1995.
In 2008, in its Comprehensive Human Rights and IHL Policy, the Ministry of National Defence of Colombia stated:
[T]he organizations acting outside the law have changed their methods and are now constantly resorting to perfidy [footnote: the 1997 First Additional Protocol to the 1949 Geneva Conventions defines perfidy as follows: “Article 37. Prohibition of perfidy: Par. 1 … Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord protection …, with intent to betray that confidence, shall constitute perfidy. The following are examples of perfidy: c) the feigning of civilian, non-combatant status”.]: they are now much less likely to be encountered in large formations, in uniform and with long firearms. Instead, they prefer to operate in civilian dress, in small groups, with hidden weapons, thus systematically infringing the principle of distinction. 
Colombia, Ministry of National Defence, Comprehensive Human Rights and IHL Policy, January 2008, § 20.
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000), in an article entitled “Perfidy”, imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict, with intent to harm or attack the adversary, … uses improperly … flags or uniforms of neutral States”. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Article 143.