Related Rule
Practice Relating to Rule 153. Command Responsibility for Failure to Prevent, Punish or Report War Crimes
In its judgment in the Episode of San Javier case in 2006, Chile’s Court of Appeals of Santiago stated:
According to Article 456 of the Criminal Procedure Code, nobody may be found guilty of a crime or simple delict unless the tribunal which is hearing the case is convinced, based on lawful evidence, not only that a punishable act has in fact been committed, but also that the accused has participated in this act in a way that gives rise to criminal responsibility and that is punished by the law. 
Chile, Court of Appeal of Santiago, Eighth Chamber, Episode of San Javier case, Case No. 2.182-1998, Judgment, 27 July 2007, § 7.