Practice Related to Rule 95. Forced Labour
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
III. Prisoners of war
The main objective of evacuation is to allow prisoners of war to escape from the immediate danger in the battle zone. They must therefore be sent as far as possible towards the rear and in the meantime must not be exposed unnecessarily to danger. They must not be forced to engage in activities of a military nature, for example to open a passage through a minefield.
Under Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 1995, organizing, ordering or carrying out, in time of war or occupation, detention of the civilian population in forced labour camps constitutes a “crime against the civilian population”.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers):
I.3. War crimes
This is by far the breach which can take the most varied forms. It relates to the grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, namely the following acts directed against the persons or objects protected by these acts:
- compelling a prisoner of war or a civilian to serve in the forces of the hostile Power.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 1995, provides that in time of war or occupation, organizing, ordering or compelling the civilian population to serve in the enemy armed forces, intelligence services or administration constitutes a “crime against the civilian population”.
The same provision applies with regard to prisoners of war.