Practice Relating to Rule 43. Application of General Principles on the Conduct of Hostilities to the Natural Environment
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
IV.1. Natural environment
As a starting point, let us consider the basic principles of the law of armed conflicts with regard to operations which could have an impact on the natural environment. Are the means and methods to be employed justified, or is there a risk that they cause superfluous damage to the environment? Is the incidental ecological damage caused excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated?