Practice Relating to Rule 2. Violence Aimed at Spreading Terror among the Civilian Population
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders):
Chapter 3. Protection
I. Persons entitled to protection
… Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited.
Chapter 4. Methods and means of warfare
I.2.8. Terrorism exerted on the civilian population
Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited. The protection of civilians is a fundamental principle of IHL. A campaign of threats or violence aimed at terrorizing the civilian population is not acceptable, whatever the circumstances, even if the civilian population has a hostile attitude towards the presence of the armed forces.
Under Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 1998, organizing, ordering or carrying out, in time of war or occupation, “measures of terror” against the civilian population constitutes a “crime against the civilian population”.