Democratic Republic of the Congo
Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Red Cross Decree (1912) punishes “any person who, without being entitled to do so … uses the emblem or the denomination of the ‘Red Cross’ or ‘Geneva Cross’, or equivalent emblems or denominations that may cause confusion, … for any … purpose”.
The Decree also punishes “any person who, in time of war, uses, without being entitled to do so, the armlet or the flag of the Red Cross”.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Code of Military Justice (1972), as amended in 1980, punishes “any individual, whether military or not, who, in time of war … improperly uses the distinctive signs and emblems defined by international conventions to ensure respect for the persons, objects and places protected under these conventions”.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Military Penal Code (2002) provides:
Punished with five to ten years of penal servitude is whoever, in time of war, or in a region where a state of siege or of emergency has been proclaimed, or at the occasion of a police operation aimed at maintaining or re-establishing public order, in violation of the laws and customs of war unduly employs the distinctive insignia and emblems defined by the international conventions to ensure respect for the persons, objects as well as localities protected by these conventions.