Related Rule
Benin
Practice Relating to Rule 57. Ruses of War
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) states:
In order to conceal his intentions and actions from the enemy to induce him to react in a way detrimental to his interests, a military commander is permitted to use ruse … A ruse of war aims to: mislead the enemy [and] to induce the enemy to act recklessly. 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule III, p. 13.