Related Rule
Burundi
Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states that “[i]t is prohibited to improperly use … the distinctive signs and signals of the medical service”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 94.
Burundi’s Red Cross Decree (1912) punishes “any person who, without being entitled to do so … uses the emblem or the denomination of the ‘Red Cross’ or ‘Geneva Cross’, or equivalent emblems or denominations that may cause confusion, … for any … purpose”. 
Burundi, Red Cross Decree, 1912, Article 2.
The Decree also punishes “any person who, in time of war, uses, without being entitled to do so, the armlet or the flag of the Red Cross”. 
Burundi, Red Cross Decree, 1912, Article 3.
Burundi’s Military Penal Code (1980) states:
Any person who, in the area of operations of a force or unit [and] in violation of the laws and customs of war, improperly uses the distinctive signs and emblems defined by the international conventions to ensure respect for persons, objects and places protected by these conventions, is punished with two to five years’ imprisonment. 
Burundi, Military Penal Code, 1980, Article 60.
Burundi’s Law on Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes (2003) states:
[The following are] considered as war crimes:
B. Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflicts, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
g) making improper use … of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions, resulting in death or serious personal injury. 
Burundi, Law on Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003, Article 4(B)(g).
Burundi’s Penal Code (2009) states:
Article 198
“War crimes” means crimes which are committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes, in particular:
2. … [S]erious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
7°. Making improper use … of the distinctive emblems of the [1949] Geneva Conventions, resulting in death or serious personal injury;
Article 336
Those who, without having the right to do so, use the flag, emblem or name … of the Red Cross … are punished by three years’ penal servitude …
The penalty can be extended to ten years if the flag or emblem of the Red Cross has been abusively used in times of war by a person who is not entitled to use it pursuant to the 1906 Geneva Convention. 
Burundi, Penal Code, 2009, Articles 198(2)(7°) and 336.
In 2010, within the context of a Training Workshop on Military Criminal Law for Military Judges, the Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants stated:
The CPM [Military Penal Code (1980)], in article 60, punishes … any person who, in the area of operations of a unit [and] in violation of the laws and customs of war, improperly uses the distinctive signs and emblems defined by international conventions to ensure the respect for persons, objects and places protected by these conventions.
The distinctive signs concerned are:
- The red cross on a white ground for the medical service and religious personnel. 
Burundi, Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants, Training Workshop on Military Criminal Law for Military Judges, November 2010, p. 16.