Related Rule
Belgium
Practice Relating to Rule 92. Mutilation and Medical, Scientific or Biological Experiments
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) provides that carrying out medical and biological experiments on protected persons is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 55.
Belgium’s Penal Code (1867), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
2. torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, including biological experiments;
18. the actions and omissions, not justified by law, which are likely to endanger the health and the physical or mental integrity of persons protected by international humanitarian law, in particular any medical procedure which is not justified by the state of health of such persons or not consistent with generally accepted medical standards;
19. unless justified under the conditions provided in § 18, acts which consist in carrying out on any persons protected under § 18, even with their consent, physical mutilation, medical or scientific experiments, or removal of tissue or organs for transplantation, except in cases of donations of blood for transfusion or of skin for grafting, provided that such donations are voluntary, consented to and intended for therapeutic purposes. 
Belgium, Penal Code, 1867, as amended on 5 August 2003, Chapter III, Title I bis, Article 136 quater, § 1(2), (18) and (19).
The Penal Code also states:
In the case of an armed conflict as defined in … Article 3 common [to the (1949) Geneva Conventions], the grave breaches of [common] Article 3, … listed below, shall constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title, when such breaches endanger, by act or omission, persons protected by these Conventions, without prejudice to criminal provisions applicable to breaches committed out of negligence:
1. violence to life and person, in particular … mutilation. 
Belgium, Penal Code, 1867, as amended on 5 August 2003, Chapter III, Title I bis, Article 136 quater, § 2(1).
Belgium’s Law concerning the Repression of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols (1993) as amended in 1999 provides that the following acts constitute crimes under international law:
… biological experiments, … acts and omissions not justified in the law which are likely to endanger the physical or mental health and integrity of persons protected by one of the Conventions relative to the protection of wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, in particular any medical procedure which is not indicated by the state of health of such persons or not consistent with generally accepted medical standards … [and] acts which consist in carrying out … physical mutilations, medical or scientific experiments or the removal of tissue or organs for transplantation, except in the cases of donations of blood for transfusion or of skin for grafting, provided that such donations are voluntary, consented to and intended for therapeutic purposes. 
Belgium, Law concerning the Repression of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, 1993, as amended in 1999, Article 1(3)(2) and (9)–(10).
Belgium’s Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law (1993), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
2. torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, including biological experiments;
9. the actions and omissions, not justified by law, which are likely to endanger the health and the physical or mental integrity of persons protected by international humanitarian law, in particular any medical procedure which is not justified by the state of health of such persons or not consistent with generally accepted medical standards;
10. unless justified under the conditions provided in § 18, acts which consist in carrying out on any persons protected under § 18, even with their consent, physical mutilation, medical or scientific experiments, or removal of tissue or organs for transplantation, except in cases of donations of blood for transfusion or of skin for grafting, provided that such donations are voluntary, consented to and intended for therapeutic purposes. 
Belgium, Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law, 1993, as amended on 23 April 2003, Article 1 ter, § 1(2), (9) and (10).
The Law also states:
In the case of an armed conflict as defined in … Article 3 common [to the (1949) Geneva Conventions], the grave breaches of [common] Article 3, … listed below, shall constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title, when such breaches endanger, by act or omission, persons protected by these Conventions, without prejudice to criminal provisions applicable to breaches committed out of negligence:
1. violence to life and person, in particular … mutilation. 
Belgium, Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law, 1993, as amended on 23 April 2003, Article 1 ter, § 2(1).