Related Rule
Belgium
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states: “Perfidious acts are acts which abuse the confidence of the adversary so that he thinks he is facing a friend or a situation protected by the law of war.” 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 32.
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Officers (1994) provides that acts of perfidy are prohibited. It describes perfidy as “ruses aimed at neutralizing the enemy (capturing, injuring or killing him) by leading him to believe that he has an obligation to respect a rule of humanitarian law”. 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Manuel d’Instruction pour Officiers, Etat-Major Général, Division Opérations, 1994, Part I, Title II, p. 34.
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers defines perfidy as “any act intended to deceive or abuse the enemy’s confidence by inviting him to afford humanitarian protection and to respect a humanitarian rule”. 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 19, footnote (1).
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) provides: “Killing or wounding by treachery is forbidden.” 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 31.
Belgium’s Penal Code (1867), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
27. to kill or wound treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army or a combatant adversary. 
Belgium, Penal Code, 1867, as amended on 5 August 2003, Chapter III, Title I bis, Article 136 quater, § 1(27).
Belgium’s Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law (1993), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
15 bis to kill or wound treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army or a combatant adversary. 
Belgium, Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law, 1993, as amended on 23 April 2003, Article 1 ter, § 1(15 bis).
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states that “feigning being wounded and wanting to surrender and firing at an adversary willing to help” and “showing signs of distress in order to mislead the enemy” are acts of perfidy. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 32.
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Officers (1994) prohibits perfidy. For example, “feigning being dead to avoid capture is lawful, but not feigning to be wounded to kill an enemy who tries to help you”. 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Manuel d’Instruction pour Officiers, Etat-Major Général, Division Opérations, 1994, Part I, Title II, p. 33.
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Officers (1994) prohibits perfidy. For example, “feigning to surrender and then opening fire at the enemy who collects you as ‘prisoner of war’ is an aggravated act of perfidy if the white flag, which is a protective sign, is used”. 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Manuel d’Instruction pour Officiers, Etat-Major Général, Division Opérations, 1994, Part I, Title II, p. 33.
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers states: “Using a white flag or feigning surrender in order to attack an adversary is strictly prohibited and constitutes a grave breach of the laws of war.” 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 15.
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states that “using the white flag in order to approach and attack” is an act of perfidy. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 32.
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states that “using the red cross emblem to cover hostile acts” is an act of perfidy. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 32.
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers provides: “The use of the sign of the Red Cross to cover military operations constitutes a perfidy which is considered as a war crime.” 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 19.
Belgium’s Law concerning the Repression of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols (1993), as amended in 1999, provides that “the perfidious use of the distinctive emblem of the red cross” constitutes a crime under international law. 
Belgium, Law concerning the Repression of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, 1993, as amended in 1999, Article 1(3)(16).
Belgium’s Penal Code (1867), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
29. perfidious use of the red cross or red crescent distinctive emblem or other protective emblems of international humanitarian law, when it results in loss of life or serious injury. 
Belgium, Penal Code, 1867, as amended on 5 August 2003, Chapter III, Title I bis, Article 136 quater, § 1(29).
Belgium’s Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law (1993), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
16. perfidious use of the red cross or red crescent distinctive emblem or other protective emblems of international humanitarian law, when it results in loss of life or serious injury. 
Belgium, Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law, 1993, as amended on 23 April 2003, Article 1 ter, § 1(16).
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) provides that “feigning having civilian or non-combatant status” is a perfidious act. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 32.
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states that “opening fire wearing the uniform … of neutral forces” is an act of perfidy. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 32.