Related Rule
Australia
Practice Relating to Rule 93. Rape and Other Forms of Sexual Violence
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states that the 1949 Geneva Conventions provide “particular protection for women and children, specifically against acts of rape or indecency”. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 603.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) stipulates: “Women receive special protection under LOAC against any attack on their honour, in particular against rape, forced prostitution and any other form of indecent assault.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, §§ 946, 1010 and 1218.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
9.20 … Women shall be especially protected against attack in particular against rape and any form of indecent assault …
9.45 The following acts are prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever:
• outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault …; and
• threats to commit any of the foregoing acts.
9.50 Children are to be respected and protected, especially against indecent assault. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 9.20, 9.45 and 9.50; see also §§ 9.48, 10.22 and 12.36.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s War Crimes Act (1945) provides that rape and “abduction of girls and women for the purpose of enforced prostitution” are war crimes. 
Australia, War Crimes Act, 1945, Section 3.
Under Australia’s War Crimes Act (1945), as amended in 2001, rape, indecent assault and “abduction, or procuring, for immoral purposes” are considered serious war crimes. 
Australia, War Crimes Act, 1945, as amended in 2001, Sections 6(1) and 7(1).
Australia’s Criminal Code Act (1995), as amended to 2007, states with respect to serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict
268.59 War crimerape
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and
(b) the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and
(b) the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(3) In this section:
consent means free and voluntary agreement. The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:
(a) the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;
(b) the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;
(c) the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;
(d) the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;
(e) the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);
(f) the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;
(g) the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.
(4) In this section:
sexually penetrate means:
(a) penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or
(b) penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or
(c) continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).
(5) In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.
(6) In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.
268.60 War crimesexual slavery
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and
(b) the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:
(a) is not free to cease providing sexual services; or
(b) is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.
(3) In this section:
sexual service means the use or display of the body of the person providing the service for the sexual gratification of others.
threat means:
(a) a threat of force; or
(b) a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or
(c) a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.
268.61 War crimeenforced prostitution
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and
(b) the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) In subsection (1):
consent means free and voluntary agreement. The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:
(a) the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;
(b) the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;
(c) the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;
(d) the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;
(e) the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);
(f) the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;
(g) the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.
threat of force or coercion includes:
(a) a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or
(b) taking advantage of a coercive environment.
(3) In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.
268.62 War crimeforced pregnancy
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and
(b) the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) In subsection (1):
forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was effected by deception or by natural, induced or age-related incapacity.
(3) To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.
268.63 War crimeenforced sterilisation
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and
(b) the deprivation is not effected by a birth-control measure that has a non-permanent effect in practice; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) In subsection (1):
consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age-related incapacity.
268.64 War crimesexual violence
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator does either of the following:
(i) commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;
(ii) causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;
without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and
(b) the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.59 to 268.63; and
(c) the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).
(3) In subsection (1):
consent means free and voluntary agreement. The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:
(a) the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;
(b) the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;
(c) the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;
(d) the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;
(e) the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);
(f) the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;
(g) the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.
threat of force or coercion includes:
(a) a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or
(b) taking advantage of a coercive environment.
(4) In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature. 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, §§ 268.59–268.64, pp. 338–343.
[emphasis in original]
The Criminal Code Act also states with respect to war crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs of war applicable in a non-international armed conflict:
268.82 War crimerape
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and
(b) the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and
(b) the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(3) In this section:
consent means free and voluntary agreement. The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:
(a) the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;
(b) the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;
(c) the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;
(d) the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;
(e) the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);
(f) the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;
(g) the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.
(4) In this section:
sexually penetrate means:
(a) penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or
(b) penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or
(c) continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).
(5) In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.
(6) In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.
268.83 War crimesexual slavery
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and
(b) the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:
(a) is not free to cease providing sexual services; or
(b) is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.
(3) In this section:
sexual service means the use or display of the body of the person providing the service for the sexual gratification of others.
threat means:
(a) a threat of force; or
(b) a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or
(c) a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.
268.84 War crimeenforced prostitution
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and
(b) the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) In subsection (1):
consent means free and voluntary agreement. The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:
(a) the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;
(b) the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;
(c) the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;
(d) the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;
(e) the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);
(f) the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;
(g) the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.
threat of force or coercion includes:
(a) a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or
(b) taking advantage of a coercive environment.
(3) In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.
268.85 War crimeforced pregnancy
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and
(b) the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) In subsection (1):
forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was affected by deception or by natural, induced or age-related incapacity.
(3) To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.
268.86 War crimeenforced sterilisation
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and
(b) the deprivation is not effected by a birth-control measure that has a non-permanent effect in practice; and
(c) the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) In subsection (1):
consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age-related incapacity.
268.87 War crimesexual violence
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator does either of the following:
(i) commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;
(ii) causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;
without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and
(b) the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.82 to 268.87; and
(c) the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b)(3). In subsection (1):
consent means free and voluntary agreement. The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:
(a) the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;
(b) the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;
(c) the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;
(d) the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;
(e) the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);
(f) the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;
(g) the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.
threat of force or coercion includes:
(a) a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against the person or another person; or
(b) taking advantage of a coercive environment.
(4) In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.  
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, §§ 268.82–268.87, pp. 357–363.
[emphasis in original]
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the Criminal Code the crimes defined in the 1998 ICC Statute, including: “genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births”; crimes against humanity, including “rape”, “sexual slavery”, “enforced prostitution”, “forced pregnancy”, “enforced sterilisation” and “sexual violence”; and war crimes, including “rape”, “sexual slavery”, “enforced prostitution”, “forced pregnancy”, “enforced sterilisation” and “sexual violence”, in both international and non-international armed conflicts. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, §§ 268.6, 268.14–268.19, 268.59–268.64 and 268.82–268.87.
In response to a report by the Australian Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, which recommended that the Australian Government establish a mechanism for investigating and identifying those responsible for serious crimes, including rape, committed in the former Yugoslavia, the Australian Government replied that this mechanism was already in place subsequent to the enactment of the International War Crimes Tribunal Act of 1995. 
Australia, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Legal Office, Australian Practice in International Law, 1995, Chapter XII, reprinted in Australian Yearbook of International Law, 1996, pp. 626–628.
In 2009, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council, the permanent representative of Australia stated:
The recent mass rape of around 500 women, children and men in eastern DRC [Democratic Republic of the Congo] is of deep concern to Australia. Sexual violence is being used as a weapon of war. All parties to the conflict have a responsibility to prevent such attacks. 
Australia, Statement before the UN Human Rights Council on Human Rights Situations Requiring the Council’s Attention, 17 September 2010.
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the representative of Australia stated: “Australia shares the Experts’ alarm over levels of violence perpetrated against women in the DRC, in particular rape, gang rape and sexual slavery”. 
Australia, Statement before the UN Human Rights Council, 13th Regular Session, Interactive Dialogue with Experts on the Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 24 March 2010.
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, the representative of Australia stated: “We are concerned that children continue to be subject to sexual violence”. 
Australia, Statement before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, 6 May 2010.