Related Rule
Australia
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) provides:
Acts which constitute perfidy are those inviting the confidence of an adversary, leading him to believe that he is entitled or obliged to accord protection under the rules of international law, with an intent to betray that confidence. Perfidious conduct is outlawed by LOAC and therefore, either a person who engages or a commander who orders or acquiesces in perfidious conduct may be prosecuted. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 502; see also § 826 (naval warfare) and § 902 (land warfare).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
Perfidy is forbidden. Acts which constitute perfidy are those inviting the confidence of an adversary, thus leading that adversary to believe that there is an entitlement, or an obligation, to accord protection provided under LOAC, with an intent to betray that confidence. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
Perfidy is forbidden. Acts which constitute perfidy are those inviting the confidence of an adversary, thus leading that adversary to believe that there is an entitlement, or an obligation, to accord protection provided under the LOAC, with an intent to betray that confidence. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
Assassination is the sudden or secret killing by treacherous means of an individual who is not a combatant, by premeditated assault, for political or religious reasons. Assassination is unlawful. In addition, it is prohibited to put a price on the head of an enemy individual. Any offer for an enemy “dead or alive” is forbidden. If prior information of an intended assassination or other act of treachery should reach the party on whose behalf the act is committed, that party should endeavour to prevent its occurrence.
The prohibition against assassination is not to be confused with attacks on individual members of the enemy’s armed forces as those persons are combatants and are legitimate military targets. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, §§ 724 and 725.
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states:
It is generally recognised by the international community that assassination of civilian political figures and issuance of orders that an enemy is to be taken ‘dead or alive’ constitutes treacherous behaviour and is, therefore, proscribed by LOAC. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 512.
The Guide further states:
Assassination is the killing or wounding of a selected individual behind the line of battle by enemy agents or unlawful combatants, and is prohibited. In addition, the proscription, outlawing, putting a price on the head of an enemy individual or any offer for an enemy “dead or alive” is forbidden. If prior information of an intended assassination or other act of treachery should reach the party on whose behalf the act is to be committed, that party should endeavour to prevent its occurrence.
It is not forbidden to send a detachment of individual members of the armed forces to kill, by sudden attack, members or a member of the enemy armed forces. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, §§ 919 and 920.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
7.25 Assassination is the sudden or secret killing by treacherous means of an individual who is not a combatant, by premeditated assault, for political or religious reasons. Assassination is unlawful. In addition, it is prohibited to put a price on the head of an enemy individual. Any offer for an enemy “dead or alive” is forbidden. If prior information of an intended assassination or other act of treachery should reach the party on whose behalf the act is to be committed, that party should endeavour to prevent its occurrence.
7.26 The prohibition against assassination is not to be confused with attacks on individual members of the enemy’s armed forces as those persons are combatants and are legitimate military targets. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 7.25–7.26.
The manual also states: “To demand a cease-fire and then to break it by surprise, or to violate a safe conduct or any other agreement, in order to kill, wound or capture enemy troops would be perfidious.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.4.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Criminal Code Act (1995), as amended to 2007, states with respect to serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict:
268.49 War crime – treacherously killing or injuring
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and
(b) the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and
(c) the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and
(d) the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and
(e) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life.
(2) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and
(b) the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and
(c) the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and
(d) the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and
(e) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years. 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended on 1 November 2007, taking into account amendments up to Act No. 177 of 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.49, pp. 333–334.
The Criminal Code Act also states with respect to war crimes that are violations of the laws and customs of war applicable in a non-international armed conflict:
268.90 War crime – treacherously killing or injuring
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and
(b) the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and
(c) the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and
(d) the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and
(e) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life.
(2) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and
(b) the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and
(c) the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and
(d) the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and
(e) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years. 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended on 1 November 2007, taking into account amendments up to Act No. 177 of 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.90, p. 365.
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the Criminal Code the war crimes defined in the 1998 ICC Statute, including “treacherously killing or injuring” a person belonging to the adverse party, in international and non-international armed conflicts. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, §§ 268.49 and 268.90.
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an incapacitation by wounds or sickness.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 826(b) (naval warfare) and § 902(b) (land warfare).
In a section entitled “Perfidy”, the Guide also states: “It is unlawful to falsely claim injury or distress for the purpose of escaping attack or inviting an enemy to lower their guard.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 503.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an incapacitation by wounds or sickness.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703(b).
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an incapacitation by wounds or sickness.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) provides: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an intent to … surrender.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 826(a) (naval warfare) and § 902(a) (land warfare).
In a section entitled “Perfidy”, The Guide states: “It is unlawful to feign surrender for the purpose of inviting an enemy to lower his guard.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 505.
The Guide further states: “The following examples constitute grave breaches or serious war crimes likely to warrant institution of criminal proceedings: … feigning surrender in order to obtain military advantage.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 1305(r).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an intent to … surrender.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703(a) (land warfare); see also § 636(b) (naval warfare) and § 910.
The manual further states: “The following examples constitute grave breaches or serious war crimes likely to warrant institution of criminal proceedings: … feigning surrender in order to obtain military advantage.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1315(r).
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an intent to … surrender.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3.
In its chapter on “Maritime Operations”, the manual states: “Perfidious acts … include the launching of an attack while feigning … surrender or distress, eg by sending a distress signal or by the crew taking to life rafts”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 6.36.
In its chapter on “Compliance”, the manual states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I extends the definition of grave breaches to include “the perfidious use of the distinctive emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal and other Red Cross societies, or of other protective signs recognised by the Conventions or the Protocol”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides: “A person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence.” 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act (1995).
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the Criminal Code the war crimes defined in the 1998 ICC Statute, including “improper use of a flag of truce … in order to feign an intention to negotiate when there is no such intention on the part of the perpetrator … [and which] results in deaths or serious personal injury”, in international armed conflicts. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, § 268.41.
Australia’s Criminal Code Act (1995), as amended to 2007, states with respect to serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict:
War crime – improper use of a flag of truce
A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator uses a flag of truce; and
(b) the perpetrator uses the flag in order to feign an intention to negotiate when there is no such intention on the part of the perpetrator; and
(c) the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and
(e) the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life. 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.41, p. 329.
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 826(a) (naval warfare) and § 902(a) (land warfare).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703(a); see also § 910.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce or surrender”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3; see also § 9.10.
The manual also states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I extends the definition of grave breaches to include “the perfidious use of the distinctive emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal and other Red Cross societies, or of other protective signs recognised by the Conventions or the Protocol”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides: “A person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence.” 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act (1995).
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the Criminal Code the war crimes defined in the 1998 ICC Statute, including “improper use of a flag of truce … in order to feign an intention to negotiate when there is no such intention on the part of the perpetrator … [and which] results in deaths or serious personal injury”, in international armed conflicts. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, § 268.41.
Australia’s Criminal Code Act (1995), as amended to 2007, states with respect to serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict:
War crime – improper use of a flag of truce
A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator uses a flag of truce; and
(b) the perpetrator uses the flag in order to feign an intention to negotiate when there is no such intention on the part of the perpetrator; and
(c) the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and
(e) the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life. 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.41, p. 329.
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994), in a section entitled “Perfidy”, states: “Protection is afforded to … medical personnel … by providing them with special identification symbols. It is unlawful for soldiers and other lawful combatants to fraudulently use protected symbols or facilities to obtain immunity from attack.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 504.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
Warships and auxiliary vessels … are prohibited … at all times from actively simulating the status of:
a. hospital ships, small coastal rescue craft or medical transports;
b. vessels on humanitarian missions;
f. vessels entitled to be identified by the emblem of the Red Cross or Red Crescent.
Perfidious acts include the launching of an attack while feigning:
a. exempt … status. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, §§ 635 and 636.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states that warships and auxiliary vessels are prohibited at all times from actively simulating the status of:
• hospital ships, small coastal rescue craft or medical transports;
• vessels on humanitarian missions;
• vessels entitled to be identified by the emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent or Red Crystal. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 6.35.
The manual further states:
Perfidious acts also include the launching of an attack while feigning:
• exempt … status. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 6.36.
The manual also states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I extends the definition of grave breaches to include “the perfidious use of the distinctive emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal and other Red Cross societies, or of other protective signs recognised by the Conventions or the Protocol”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides: “A person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence.” 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act (1995).
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the Criminal Code the war crimes defined in the 1998 ICC Statute, including, when committed in international armed conflicts:
improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions …
[when] the perpetrator uses the emblem for combatant purposes to invite the confidence of an adversary in order to lead him or her to believe that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the adversary is obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator, with intent to betray that confidence …
[and when] the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, § 268.44.
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … protected status by the use of protective symbols, signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 826(d) (naval warfare) and § 902(d) (land warfare).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … protected status by the use of protective symbols, signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703(d) (land warfare); see also §§ 635(d) and 636(a) (naval warfare).
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … protected status by the use of protective symbols, signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations (UN)”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3.
In its chapter on “Maritime Operations”, the manual states that warships and auxiliary vessels are prohibited at all times from actively simulating the status of “vessels protected by the United Nations (UN) flag”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 6.35.
The manual further states: “Perfidious acts also include the launching of an attack while feigning: … UN status”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 6.36.
In its chapter on “Compliance”, the manual states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I extends the definition of grave breaches to include “the perfidious use of the distinctive emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal and other Red Cross societies, or of other protective signs recognised by the Conventions or the Protocol”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides: “A person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence.” 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act (1995).
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the Criminal Code the war crimes defined in the 1998 ICC Statute, including “improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations … [when] the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury”, in international armed conflicts. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, § 268.43.
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides: “A person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence.” 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, 1957, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act (1995).
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994), in a section entitled “Perfidy”, states:
Protection is afforded to … civil defence workers … and PW by providing them with special identification symbols. It is unlawful for soldiers and other lawful combatants to fraudulently use protected symbols … in order to obtain immunity from attack. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 504.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I extends the definition of grave breaches to include “the perfidious use of the distinctive emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal and other Red Cross societies, or of other protective signs recognised by the Conventions or the Protocol”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994), in a section entitled “Perfidy”, states: “Combatants wearing civilian clothing in battle … violate LOAC and diminish the enemy’s ability to … distinguish civilians.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 507.
The manual adds: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … civilian, non-combatant status.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 826(c) (naval warfare) and § 902(c) (land warfare).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … civilian or noncombatant status.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703(c) (land warfare); see also §§ 635(c) and 636(a) (naval warfare).
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … civilian or non-combatant status”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states:
Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of:
(d) protected status by the use of protective symbols, signs, emblems or uniforms … of neutral or other States not involved in the conflict. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 826(d) (naval warfare) and § 902(d) (land warfare).
In a section entitled “Perfidy”, the manual further states:
It is illegal to use in battle emblems, markings or clothing of a neutral or enemy. Combatants wearing civilian clothing or otherwise pretending to be a member of a neutral nation violate LOAC and diminish the enemy’s ability to identify neutrals and distinguish civilians. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 507.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … protected status by the use of protective symbols, signs, emblems or uniforms … of neutral or other states not involved in the conflict.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703(d).
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Acts which constitute perfidy include feigning of … protected status by the use of protective symbols, signs, emblems or uniforms of … neutral or other states not involved in the conflict”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3.
The manual also states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I extends the definition of grave breaches to include “the perfidious use of the distinctive emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal and other Red Cross societies, or of other protective signs recognised by the Conventions or the Protocol”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides: “A person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence.” 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act (1995).