Related Rule
Australia
Practice Relating to Rule 36. Demilitarized Zones
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
Demilitarised zones are areas in which, by express agreement between the parties to the conflict, military operations are not conducted. The aim of these zones is common to that of non-defended localities. The differences between the two areas relate to how they are established and their situation. A non-defended locality may be created by unilateral declaration, whereas a demilitarised zone is created by express agreement between the parties. From the commander’s point of view, protection granted to each zone is identical. Therefore, as long as sufficient notice is given of the zones and they are adequately marked, they are protected from attack. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 737.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
Demilitarised zones are areas in which, by express agreement between the parties to the conflict, military operations are not conducted. The aim of these zones is common to that of non-defended localities. The differences between the two areas relate to how they are established and their situation. A non-defended locality may be created by unilateral declaration, whereas a demilitarised zone is created by express agreement between the parties. From the commander’s point of view, protection granted to each zone is identical. Therefore, as long as sufficient notice is given of the zones and they are adequately marked, they are protected from attack. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.40; see also § 9.40.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “Generally, demilitarised zones are protected from attack.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 943; see also § 737 and Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 928.
The manual further provides that “making … demilitarised zones the object of attack” constitutes a grave breach or a serious war crime likely to warrant institution of criminal proceedings. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1315(k); see also Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 1305(k).
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Generally, demilitarised zones are protected from attack.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.44.
The manual further states:
[The 1977 Additional Protocol I] extends the definition of grave breaches to include the following … acts when committed wilfully, in violation of the relevant provisions of the protocol, and causing death or serious injury to body or health:
• making … demilitarised zones the object of attack. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides that “a person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence”. 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act 1995.
Australia’s Criminal Code Act (1995), as amended to 2007, states with respect to war crimes that are grave breaches of 1977 Additional Protocol I:
268.98 War crimeattacking undefended places or demilitarized zones
A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator attacks one or more towns, villages, dwellings, buildings or demilitarized zones; and
(b) the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings are open for unresisted occupation; and
(c) the attack results in death or serious injury to body or health; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life. 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.98, p. 371.
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the list of war crimes of the Criminal Code grave breaches of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including “attacking … demilitarised zones”. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, § 268.98.