Related Rule
Australia
OPractice Relating to Rule 25. Medical Personnel
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) provides: “Civilian medical personnel are deemed to be protected persons under the Geneva Conventions … Military medical personnel … are also entitled to general protection under the Geneva Conventions.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, §§ 614–615.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “Military and civilian medical personnel are protected persons.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 963.
The manual defines medical personnel as follows:
Medical personnel are those persons, military or civilian, assigned exclusively to medical tasks or to the administration of medical units or the operation or administration of medical transports. Such assignment may be permanent or temporary. In addition to doctors, dentists, nurses, medical orderlies and hospital administrators attached to the forces of military and civilian establishments, medical personnel include:
a.personnel of national Red Cross and other voluntary aid societies recognised and authorised by a party to the conflict;
b.medical personnel attached to civil defence units; and
c.any persons made available for humanitarian purposes by a neutral state, a recognised and authorised aid society of such a state, or an impartial international humanitarian organisation. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 521.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states that protected persons include “military and civilian medical personnel”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.55; see also 9.68.
The manual defines medical personnel as follows:
Medical personnel are those persons, military or civilian, assigned exclusively to medical tasks or to the administration of medical units or the operation or administration of medical transports. Such assignment may be permanent or temporary. In addition to doctors, dentists, nurses, medical orderlies and hospital administrators attached to the forces or military and civilian establishments, medical personnel include:
• personnel of national Red Cross and other voluntary aid societies recognised and authorised by a party to the conflict;
• medical personnel attached to civil defence units; and
• any persons made available for humanitarian purposes by a neutral state, a recognised and authorised aid society of such a state, or an impartial international humanitarian organisation. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.71.
With regard to the identification of medical personnel, the manual states:
Identity cards are to be issued to … medical … personnel regardless of whether they are of permanent or temporary status. Under no circumstances are they to be deprived of this identification. Should circumstances prevent the issue of an identity card, a certificate may be issued temporarily until such time as a proper card can be issued. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.9.
In its chapter on “Weapons”, the manual states that “non-combatants and those who have not been or are no longer in the fight (sick and wounded, shipwrecked, medical personnel, chaplains and most civilians) must not be targeted”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 4.30.
In its chapter on “Air Operations”, the manual states:
It is permitted to attack those who are not protected persons under the conventions while they are attempting to rescue aircrew who have crashed. However, rescuers such as medical personnel attempting to rescue injured airmen are protected. In such cases, the airman and his rescuers are protected in accordance with the Geneva Conventions. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 8.55.
Regarding loss of protected status, the manual states:
9.11 [Medical] personnel lose their protected status when … they engage in hostile acts, or attempt to shield military objectives from attack, other than circumstances in which:
- they use arms in self-defence or for the defence of the wounded and sick;
- they are used as guards, pickets and sentries for unit protection; and
- small arms and ammunition taken from the wounded and sick are found within a medical unit.
9.69 Military medical personnel, facilities and equipment are also entitled to general protection. However, they may lose this protection if they engage in acts harmful to the enemy. Before the protection of medical personnel and facilities is lost, a warning will normally be provided and reasonable time allowed to permit cessation of improper activities. In extreme cases, overriding military necessity may preclude such a warning. Protection will not be lost if medical members act in self-defence. Weapons may be carried. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 9.11 and 9.69; see also § 5.23.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) provides that military medical personnel lose their protection “if they engage in acts harmful to the enemy … Protection will not be lost if medical members act in self-defence. Defensive weapons such as side-arms may be carried.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 615.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states that medical personnel “are protected so long as they do not participate in hostilities. The carriage of light individual weapons for self-defence or for defence of wounded or sick in their care is not considered participation.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 521; see also §§ 911 and 964.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states that medical personnel “are protected so long as they do not participate in hostilities. The carriage of light individual weapons for self-defence or for defence of wounded or sick in their care is not considered participation.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 5.23; see also §§ 9.11 and 9.69.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).