Related Rule
Australia
Practice Relating to Rule 135. Children
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states that the terms “wounded” and “sick” “also cover … new born babies”. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, glossary, p. xxiv.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides: “Children are granted special protection under LOAC. Important rules are shown below: a. because of their age children should receive all the aid and care they require.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 947.
The manual further states: “The occupying power must take necessary steps to ensure that children under 15 years of age and who are separated from their families are not left to their own resources.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1215.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
7.38 … [In the context of siege warfare] The opposing parties are required to try and conclude local agreements for … the passage of consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects … and of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under 15 …
9.50 Children are to be respected and protected, especially against indecent assault. The care and aid needed by children must be provided. As is the case with women, children are granted special protection under the LOAC … because of their age children should receive all the aid and care they require …
12.29 The occupying power must take necessary steps to ensure that children under 15 years of age and who are separated from their families are not left to their own resources. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 7.38, 9.50 and 12.29.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, the representative of Australia stated: “We are concerned that children continue to be subject to … trafficking and other violations.” 
Australia, Statement by its representative before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, 6 May 2010.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides that “the occupying power must ensure that … proper steps are taken to maintain [the] education and religious welfare” of children under 15 years of age. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1215.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
The occupying power must take necessary steps to ensure that children under 15 years of age and who are separated from their families are not left to their own resources, and that proper steps are taken to maintain their education and religious welfare. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 12.29.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “The opposing parties are required to try and conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas of … children”. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 735; see also Commanders’ Guide (1994), § 926.
The manual further states:
As is the case with women, children are granted special protection under LOAC. Important rules are shown below …
e. children who are not nationals of the state may not be evacuated by that state to a foreign country unless the evacuation is temporary and accords to certain conditions set out in [the 1977 Additional Protocol I]. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 947.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
7.38 … [In the context of siege warfare] The opposing parties are required to try and conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas of … children …
9.50 … [C]hildren who are not nationals of the state may not be evacuated by that state to a foreign country unless the evacuation is temporary and accords to certain conditions set out in G. P. I. [1977 Additional Protocol I]. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 7.38 and 9.50.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides: “The death penalty must not be executed on children who are under the age of 18 at the time the offence was committed.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 947.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states that “the death penalty must not be executed on children who are under the age of 18 at the time the offence was committed”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.50.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Australia stated:
[C]hildren who arrive in Australia from countries where they may have been engaged in armed conflict, such as all refugee and humanitarian entrants, are eligible for Short-term Torture and Trauma counselling during their time in the Integrated Humanitarian Settlement Strategy (usually for six to twelve months after their arrival in Australia). 
Australia, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 September 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/AUS/1, submitted October 2008. § 62.