Related Rule
Australia
Practice Relating to Rule 107. Spies
Section A. Definition of spies
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) defines spies as “combatants who conduct covert espionage operations in enemy occupied territory, while not in uniform”. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 707; see also § 913.
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) defines espionage as “the clandestine collection of information behind enemy lines or in the area of operations with the intention of communicating that information to a hostile party to the conflict”. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 717.
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) defines espionage as “the clandestine collection of information behind enemy lines or in the area of operations with the intention of communicating that information to a hostile party to the conflict”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.18.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).