Related Rule
Argentina
Practice Relating to Rule 100. Fair Trial Guarantees
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides that protected persons arrested on suspicion of performing acts prejudicial to the occupying power cannot be “deprived … of a fair and regular trial”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 4.003.
The manual further states that a “competent tribunal of the Occupying Power cannot impose any sentence without having proceeded to a regular trial”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.029(5).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts, the manual restates the provisions of common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 8.001.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states that “depriving [a protected person] of his right to a regular and impartial trial” is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 8.03.
Argentina’s Law on the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights (2005) states:
Article 27 (Minimum procedural guarantees. Guarantees in judicial or administrative proceedings)
In any judicial or administrative proceedings affecting children and adolescents, the governmental bodies shall guarantee [that children and adolescents enjoy] … all those rights provided for in the National Constitution [of Argentina], in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in international treaties ratified by the Argentine Nation and any laws promulgated in consequence of such treaties. 
Argentina, Law on the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, 2005, Article 27.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “In any case, a prisoner of war shall not appear in front of a tribunal, whatever its nature, if it does not offer essential guarantees of independence and impartiality.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.074.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides that in non-international armed conflicts, “only a tribunal offering the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality can pronounce a sentence”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.10.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides that presumption of innocence is a fundamental judicial guarantee which applies to prisoners of war and civilians in occupied territories. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30 (POWs), § 4.15 (civilians) and § 5.09 (occupied territory).
The presumption of innocence is also a fundamental guarantee in situations of non-international armed conflict. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.10.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides, in a paragraph entitled “Right of defence”: “before giving a disciplinary penalty, the accused prisoner must be informed, with precision, of the acts he is charged with”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.082(2).
The manual further provides:
The accused prisoner of war will receive, as quickly as possible before the beginning of the trial, communication in an understandable language, of the bill of indictment as well as the acts which generally are notified to the accused in accordance with the laws in force in the army of the [detaining power]. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.086.
The manual also provides that the occupying power shall inform “any indicted person … without delay, of the motives of accusation that have been formulated against him, in a language he will understand”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.029(2).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides that, at least certain guarantees shall be respected, such as: “the information of the prisoner without delay of the details of the offence of which he is charged”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30.
The manual further states that any accused person shall be informed without delay of the particulars of the offences of which he is accused. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 5.09(1) (occupied territories); see also § 4.15 (civilians).
The same provision applies in non-international armed conflicts. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.10.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “In no case shall a prisoner of war appear in front of a tribunal … if the proceedings do not ensure to the accused person the rights and means of defence”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.074.
The manual further provides:
A prisoner of war has the right to be assisted by one of his inmates [or] to be defended by a qualified lawyer of his own choosing … In order to prepare his defence, counsel will have at least a period of two weeks before the examination of the case, as well as the necessary facilities; he can visit the accused freely and meet with him without witness. Counsel may also meet all witnesses on his behalf, including other prisoners of war. He will enjoy these facilities until the expiration of the delay to appeal. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.086; see also § 5.029(3) (occupied territory).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states:
The right of prisoners to a defence is recognized and guaranteed. To this effect, prisoners have the right to be assisted by one of their fellow inmates, or to be defended by a qualified lawyer of their own choosing. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30; see also § 5.09.
Argentina’s Code of Criminal Procedure (1991) states: “Incommunicado detention may not prevent the detainee from communicating with his counsel promptly before the beginning of his statement before the judge.” 
Argentina, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1991, Article 205.
Argentina’s Law on the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights (2005) states:
Article 27 (Minimum procedural guarantees. Guarantees in judicial or administrative proceedings)
In any judicial or administrative proceedings affecting children and adolescents, the governmental bodies shall guarantee [that children and adolescents enjoy] the following rights and guarantees, in addition to all those rights provided for in the National Constitution [of Argentina], in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in international treaties ratified by the Argentine Nation and any laws promulgated in consequence of such treaties:
a) To be heard before the competent authority every time the child or adolescent requests so;
c) To be assisted by a legal counsel preferably specialized in childhood and adolescence since the beginning of the judicial proceedings involving him or her. In case [the child or adolescent] lacks economic resources, the State shall assign legal assistance to him or her ex officio.
d) To actively participate during the entire proceedings. 
Argentina, Law on the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, 2005, Article 27(a), (c) and (d).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) states that the verdict shall be given in “the shortest time limit as possible”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.008(2).
The manual also provides that the occupying power shall conduct the case “in the most speedy way”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.029(2).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) states that prisoners of war have the right to “call witnesses”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.082.
The manual further states that the counsel for defence “can … talk with witnesses for the prosecution, including prisoners of war”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.086.
The manual also states: “Any accused has the right to assert the means of evidence necessary for his defence … including citing witnesses”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.029(3).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states that a prisoner of war has the “right to subpoena witnesses”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30; see also § 5.09.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides that the accused prisoner of war “shall be authorized … to ask for the assistance of a qualified interpreter” and that a prisoner of war has the right to “use, if he considers it to be necessary, the services of a qualified interpreter”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, §§ 2.082 and 2.086.
The manual further states: “Any accused person, except if he refuses freely, can be assisted by an interpreter during the investigation as well as during the hearings before the tribunal. He can, at any time, challenge the interpreter and ask for his substitution.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.029(3).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states that a POW has the “right to … have access to an interpreter”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30; see also § 5.09.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) lists the fundamental guarantees for prisoners of war, including “trial in the presence of the accused”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30.
The same provision applies to civilians and in occupied territories. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, §§ 4.15 and 5.09(4).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts, the manual states that one of the fundamental judicial guarantees is “trial in the presence of the accused”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.10.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “No moral or physical pressure shall be exercised on a prisoner of war to make him confess guilt for the act of which he is accused.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra , RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.083(1).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states that judicial proceedings must afford the guarantee that there is “no pressure on the prisoner to confess guilt”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30.
With respect to occupied territories, the manual states that there shall be “no pressure in order to obtain a confession”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 5.09(3).
In the case of non-international armed conflict, the manual provides for the “absence of pressure [on the accused] to obtain a confession of guilt”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.10.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) lists the fundamental guarantees for prisoners of war, inter alia, “public trial”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.30.
The same provision applies to civilians and in occupied territories. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, §§ 4.15 and 5.09(4).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “Any prisoner of war …shall be fully informed of his rights of recourse, as well as the required time limit to exercise them.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.087.
The manual further states that the “proceedings shall foresee the right to appeal for the persons [placed in assigned residence or interned]”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.008(2).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states that, in occupied territory, any convicted person shall be informed of the means of recourse available and how to exercise them. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 5.09.
With respect to non-international armed conflict, the manual states that “information on the right to judicial appeals” is one of the fundamental guarantees. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.10.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “Any prisoner of war has the right, under the same conditions as the members of the armed forces of the [Detaining Power], to make an appeal against any sentence pronounced against him.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.087.
The manual further provides that the “proceedings shall foresee the right to appeal for the persons [placed in assigned residence or interned]”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.008(2).
With respect to occupied territory, the manual states:
Any sentenced person has the possibility to use the recourse prescribed in the legislation which applies to the tribunal … If the legislation which applies to the tribunal does not foresee possibilities of appeal, the sentenced/convicted person shall have the right to appeal the sentence in front of the competent authority of the Occupying Power. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.029(4).
Argentina’s Law on the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights (2005) states:
Article 27 (Minimum procedural guarantees. Guarantees in judicial or administrative proceedings)
In any judicial or administrative proceedings affecting children and adolescents, the governmental bodies shall guarantee [that children and adolescents enjoy] the following rights and guarantees, in addition to all those rights provided for in the National Constitution [of Argentina], in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in international treaties ratified by the Argentine Nation and any laws promulgated in consequence of such treaties:
e) To appeal to a superior body against any decision affecting him or her. 
Argentina, Law on the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, 2005, Article 27(e).
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “A prisoner of war cannot be sentenced more than once because of the same act or on the same charge.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 2.076.
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states: “No prisoner of war may be punished more than once for the same act or on the same charge (Article 86 [of the 1949 Geneva Convention III]).” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 3.23.
With respect to occupied territory, the manual states that “civilians shall not be punished more than once for the same fault” … and that anyone “shall be tried only once for the same offence or the same accusation in conformity with the same legislation in the same proceedings”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, §§ 4.36 and 5.09.