Editor: Iris Müller
Research Team (British Red Cross-ICRC at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge): Natália Ferreira de Castro, Emilie Fitzsimons, Hannah Maley, Claudia Maritano, Jana Panakova
Project assistants: Sabeena Sarla Bali-Dingra, Tilman Rodenhäuser, Veronika Vajdova, Nele Verlinden, Vishakha Vedani Wijenayake
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Sophie Gobert, Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Côte d’Ivoire – ICRC Abidjan and M. Zirignon Constant Delbe
Venezuela – ICRC Caracas

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Iris Müller
Research Team (British Red Cross-ICRC at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge): Cédric Apercé, Michael Carrell, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Emilie Fitzsimons, Hannah Maley, Claudia Maritano, Jana Panakova
Project assistants: Jemma Maree Arman, Tracey Begley, Sabrina Henry, Tilman Rodenhäuser, Veronika Vajdova, Vishakha Vedani Wijenayake
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Sophie Gobert, Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Iraq – ICRC Baghdad, Dr. Hayder Kadhim Abd Ali, Dr. Nadher Ahmed Mandeel and Prof. Hadi Naeem Al-Maliki
Sierra Leone – ICRC Conakry and Ibrahim Kanneh Esq.
Thailand – ICRC Bangkok
Zimbabwe – ICRC Harare

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Iris Müller
Research Team (British Red Cross-ICRC at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge): Cédric Apercé, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Emilie Fitzsimons, Hannah Maley, Claudia Maritano, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel, Emmanette Viney
Project assistants: Jemma Maree Arman, Sabrina Henry, Vanessa Murphy, Kristina Nechayeva, Isabel Robinson, Tilman Rodenhäuser, Nele Verlinden, Vishakha Vedani Wijenayake
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Sophie Gobert, Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Chad – ICRC N’Djamena and Dr Hélène Lambatim
Georgia – ICRC Tbilisi and Ms Nino Abramishvili, lawyer
Lao People’s Democratic Republic – ICRC Bangkok
Senegal – ICRC Dakar and Ms Babou Mou Mapeinda Gueye
Spain - Spanish Red Cross (IHL CENTER)

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Iris Müller
Research Team (British Red Cross-ICRC at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge): Michael Carrel, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Emilie Fitzsimons, Vanessa Holzer, Hannah Maley, Claudia Maritano, Helen Obregón Gieseken, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel
Project assistants: Jemma Maree Arman, Tracey Begley, Sabrina Henry, Elem Khairullin, Jérôme Massé, Vanessa Murphy, Jelena Nikolic, Isabel Louise Robinson, Paulien Vandendriessche, Nele Verlinden
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Sophie Gobert, Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Democratic Republic of the Congo – ICRC Kinshasa
Switzerland –Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law (ICIHL)

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Iris Müller
Research Team (British Red Cross-ICRC at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge): Natália Ferreira de Castro, Michael Carrel, Vanessa Holzer, Hannah Maley, Claudia Maritano, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel, Emmanette Viney
Project assistants: Tracey Begley, Sabrina Henry, Jelena Nikolic, Isabel Louise Robinson, Tilman Rodenhäuser, Nele Verlinden
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Canada – ICRC Washington and International Criminal and Humanitarian Law Clinic at the Faculty of Law, Laval University
India – ICRC New Delhi

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Iris Müller
Research Team (British Red Cross-ICRC at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge): Natália Ferreira de Castro, Claire Constant, Vanessa Holzer, Claudia Maritano, Helen Obregón Gieseken, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel, Emmanette Viney
Research Team (International Criminal and Humanitarian Law Clinic at the Faculty of Law, Laval University): Prof. Julia Grignon, Armane Escudé, Sophie Estienne, Sabrina Henry, Dominik Longchamps, Damien Massi, Chanaël Mendrowski, Frédérik Perron-Deschênes.
Project assistants: Tracey Begley, Jérôme Massé, Kristina Nechayeva, Jelena Nikolic, Tilman Rodenhäuser, Veronika Vajdova, Nele Verlinden, Vishakha Vedani Wijenayake
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Afghanistan – ICRC Kabul
Chad – ICRC N'Djamena and Dr Hélène Lambatim
Tajikistan – ICRC Tashkent and Prof. Saitumbar Rajabov
Uzbekistan – ICRC Tashkent and Dr Shamil Asyanov
Zimbabwe – ICRC Harare

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Iris Müller
Research Team: Natália Ferreira de Castro, Claire Constant, Vanessa Holzer, Claudia Maritano, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel, Emmanette Viney
Project assistants: Tracey Begley, Jérôme Massé, Kristina Nechayeva, Jelena Nikolic, Tilman Rodenhäuser, Veronika Vajdova, Nele Verlinden, Vishakha Vedani Wijenayake
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Chad – ICRC N'Djamena and Dr Hélène Lambatim
Côte d’Ivoire – ICRC Abidjan and M. Zirignon Constant Delbe
Cuba – ICRC Mexico and Prof. María de los Ángeles de Varona Hernández
Russian Federation – ICRC Moscow and Ms Darya Zaemskaya
Viet Nam – ICRC Bangkok

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Els Debuf
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Claire Constant, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Vanessa Holzer, Helen Obregón Gieseken, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel
Project assistants: Jelena Nikolic, Nele Verlinden, Tracey Begley, Veronika Vajdova, Isabel Louise Robinson
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Denmark – Danish Red Cross and Dr Jacques Hartmann
Djibouti – ICRC Nairobi and Mr Ahmed Osman Hachi
Poland – Polish Red Cross and Dr Marcin Marcinko
Somalia – ICRC Nairobi and ICRC Somalia
Tajikistan – ICRC Moscow, ICRC Dushanbe and Prof Saitumbar Rajabov

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Els Debuf
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Claire Constant, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Vanessa Holzer, Helen Obregón Gieseken, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel
Project assistants: Jelena Nikolic, Nele Verlinden, Tracey Begley, Veronika Vajdova
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Bangladesh – ICRC Dhaka and M. Mohammad Azharul Islam
Guinea – ICRC Conakry and M. Alia Diaby
Ireland – Irish Red Cross and Dr. Ray Murphy
Malaysia – ICRC Kuala Lumpur
Nigeria – ICRC Abuja and Prof. Ladan
Peru – ICRC Lima and Ms Patricia Loayza Ulloa and M. Oscar Sandoval
Sri Lanka – ICRC Colombo and Ms M.I. Lecamwasam
United States of America – ICRC Washington
Zimbabwe – ICRC Harare and M. Choice Damiso
ICTY and ICTR - British Red Cross and Ms Anna Mathew

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Els Debuf
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Claire Constant, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Vanessa Holzer, Helen Obregón Gieseken, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel
Project assistants: Jelena Nikolic, Nele Verlinden, Veronika Vajdova
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of national practice for this update:

Afghanistan – ICRC Kabul
Australia – ICRC Canberra and Ms Chantal Nguyen
Burundi – ICRC Bujumbura and Prof. Léonard Gacuko
Central African Republic – ICRC Bangui and Lt. Jean-Claude Tomoro and Ms. Danielle Demafouth
Chad – ICRC N’Djamena and Dr. Hélène Lambatim
Israël – ICRC Tel Aviv
Mexico – ICRC Mexico and Ms Ximena Medellín Urquiaga
Russian Federation – ICRC Moscow and Ms Darya Zaemskaya
Spain – Spanish Red Cross
Venezuela – ICRC Caracas
Viet Nam – ICRC Bangkok

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Els Debuf
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Claire Constant, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Vanessa Holzer, Helen Obregón Gieseken, Jana Panakova, Jolien Quispel
Project assistants: Tracey Begley, Jelena Nikolic, Nele Verlinden, Veronika Vajdova
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations for the collection of practice for this update:

Armenia – ICRC Yerevan
Brazil – ICRC Brasilia and Prof. Dr. Tarciso Dal Masso
Cuba – ICRC Mexico and Prof. María de los Ángeles de Varona Hernández
El Salvador – ICRC Mexico and Prof. Elizabeth Villalta Vizcarra
Georgia – ICRC Tbilisi and Ms. Nino Abramishvili
Nepal – ICRC Kathmandu and Dr. Kul Ratna Bhurtel
New Zealand – ICRC Canberra and Ms. Chantal Nguyen

ECCC, ICC and ICJ – British Red Cross and Ms Anna Mathew

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Els Debuf
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Claire Constant, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Vanessa Holzer, Helen Obregón Gieseken, Jolien Quispel
Project assistants: Tracey Begley, Jelena Nikolic, Nele Verlinden
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations who collected the practice in the following countries for the period 2008-2010:

Azerbaijan – ICRC Baku and M. Vafaddin Ibaev
Côte d'Ivoire – ICRC Abidjan and M. Zirignon Constant Delbe
Fiji – ICRC Suva and M. Patrick Wall
France – ICRC Paris
Germany – German Red Cross and Ms Katja Schöberl
Kenya – ICRC Nairobi and Brigadier Titus Githiora
Morocco – ICRC Tunis and Professor Mohammad El-Bazaaz
Mozambique – ICRC Harare and Mrs Orquidea Massarongo
Pakistan – ICRC Islamabad
Rwanda – ICRC Kigali and M. Havugiyaremye Aimable
Uganda – ICRC Kampala
Ukraine – ICRC Moscow and Dr. Nikolay Gnatovskiy
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – British Red Cross and Dr. Jenny Kuper
Yemen – ICRC Cairo, ICRC Sanaa and Dr. Abdul Wehab Shamssan

ECCC, ICC and ICJ – British Red Cross and Ms Anna Mathew

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editors: Els Debuf, Iris Müller
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Vanessa Holzer, Anna Mathew, Helen Obregón Gieseken
Project assistants: Jelena Nikolic, Nele Verlinden, Tracey Begley
Adviser: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Communications adviser: Michelle Rockwell, Isaac Griberg
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Liberia – ICRC Abidjan Regional Legal Adviser’s office, ICRC Monrovia and Ceaineh D. Clinton-Johnson
Norway – Norwegian Red Cross and Christin Oftebro Sandvold
Sierra Leone – ICRC Abidjan Regional Legal Adviser’s office, ICRC Freetown and Ibrahim Kanneh, Esq

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Els Debuf
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Anthony Cullen, Iris Müller, Vanessa Holzer, Valentina Falco, Veronika Bilkova, Natália Ferreira de Castro, Jelena Nikolic
Project assistants: Jelena Nikolic, Nele Verlinden
Advisor: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Communications adviser: Michelle Rockwell
Online adviser: Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations who collected the practice in the following countries for the period 2003-2007:

Bosnia and Herzegovina – ICRC Sarajevo
Croatia – ICRC Belgrade and Professors Sandra Fabijanic-Gagro and Nives Mazur
Serbia and Montenegro – ICRC Belgrade
Serbia – ICRC Belgrade and Professor Vesna Knezevic-Predic, Dr. Dejan Pavlovic and Milos Hrnjaz
Belgium – Belgian Red Cross
Spain – Spanish Red Cross
Switzerland – Swiss Red Cross
Chad – ICRC N’Djamena
Djibouti – ICRC Nairobi
Senegal – ICRC Dakar
Burundi – ICRC Bujumbura and Aimé-Parfait Niyonkuru
Bangladesh – ICRC Dhaka
Japan – ICRC Kuala Lumpur Regional Legal Advisor's office
Viet Nam – ICRC Kuala Lumpur Regional Legal Advisor's office
Iran – ICRC Teheran and Professor Amir-Hossein Ranjbarian and Dr. Nader Saed
Argentina – ICRC Buenos Aires
Chile – ICRC Buenos Aires
Colombia – ICRC Bogotá
El Salvador – ICRC Mexico Regional Legal Advisor's office
Guatemala – ICRC Mexico Regional Legal Advisor's office
Mexico – ICRC Mexico
Peru – ICRC Lima and Patricia Loayza
Uruguay – ICRC Buenos Aires

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Els Debuf, Annyssa Bellal
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Aleksi Pursiainen, Anthony Cullen, Iris Müller, Vanessa Holzer, Valentina Falco
Advisor: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Online adviser: Hélène Vincent& Catherine Pétermann Bernasconi
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Communications adviser: Michelle Rockwell

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations who collected the practice in the following countries for the period 2003-2007:

Armenia - Aram Orbelyan
Australia – ICRC Sydney
Azerbaijan - Vafaddin Ibayev
Bahrain – ICRC Cairo Regional legal advisor's office
Cameroon – ICRC Yaoundé
Democratic Republic of Congo – ICRC Kinshasa
Fiji – ICRC Sydney
Finland – Finnish Red Cross
France – ICRC Paris
Hungary – Hungarian Red Cross and Réka Varga
Israel – ICRC Tel Aviv
Italy – Italian Red Cross and Maria Chiara Campisi
Jordan - ICRC Cairo Regional legal advisor's office and Professor Mohamed Olwan
Libya – ICRC Cairo Regional legal advisor's office
Nepal – ICRC Kathmandu
Netherlands – Netherlands Red Cross
New Zealand – ICRC Sydney
Oman – ICRC Cairo Regional legal advisor's office
Pakistan – ICRC Islamabad
Republic of Korea – ICRC Kuala Lumpur Regional legal advisor's office
Rwanda – ICRC Kigali and Havugiyaremye Aimable
Sri Lanka – ICRC Colombo
Syria – ICRC Cairo Regional legal advisor's office
Thailand – ICRC Bangkok
Uganda – ICRC Kampala
Ukraine - Mykola Gnatovsky
United States of America – Laura M. Olson

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Anthony Cullen, Iris Müller and Aleksi Pursiainen
Advisor: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Online adviser: Hélène Vincent
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Communications adviser: Michelle Rockwell

Special Thanks

Special thanks are due to the following persons and organizations who collected the practice in the following countries for the period 2003-2007:

Afghanistan – ICRC Kabul
Algeria – ICRC Cairo regional legal adviser's office
Canada – Laura M. Olson
Central African Republic – ICRC Abidjan regional legal adviser's office
China – ICRC Beijing
Côte d'Ivoire – ICRC Abidjan
Denmark – Jacques Hartmann
Ethiopia – Solomon Gezahegh
Germany – German Red Cross
Greece – Stelios Perrakis and Maria-Daniella Marouda
India – ICRC New Delhi
Indonesia – ICRC Jakarta
Iraq – Dr. Hadi Naeem Al-Maliki
Malaysia – ICRC Kuala Lumpur
Morocco – ICRC Cairo regional legal adviser's office
Nigeria – ICRC Abidjan regional legal adviser's office
Norway – Norwegian Red Cross
Philippines – ICRC Manila
Poland – Dr. Marcin Marcinko
Qatar – ICRC Cairo regional legal adviser's office
Russian Federation – ICRC Moscow
Saudi Arabia – ICRC Cairo regional legal adviser's office
Sierra Leone – ICRC Abidjan regional legal adviser's office
South Africa – ICRC Pretoria
Sudan – ICRC Cairo regional legal adviser's office
Sweden – Swedish Red Cross
Turkey – ICRC Ankara
United Arab Emirates – ICRC Cairo regional legal adviser's office
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – British Red Cross and Dr. Jenny Kuper
United States of America – Laura M. Olson
Yemen - ICRC Cairo Regional legal advisor's office and Professor Abdel-Wahad Shamssan

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Editor: Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Research Team: Michael Carrel, Anthony Cullen, Iris Müller and Aleksi Pursiainen
Advisor: Michael Meyer
Copy-editor: Christina Grisewood
Online adviser: Hélène Vincent
Database design: Florent Isselin
Database adviser: Sandra Manzi Kutner
Communications adviser: Michelle Rockwell

Special Thanks

The research assistance of Jonathan Cuenoud, Fulvia Fallani, Arezou Hassanzadeh, Gisela Hernandez-Herrerías and Ismael Raboud is gratefully acknowledged

Photo credit:

REUTERS/Anuruddha Lokuhapuarachchi

Volume I: Rules

Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck, with contributions by Carolin Alvermann, Knut Dörmann and Baptiste Rolle


Volume II: Practice

Edited by Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck, with contributions by Carolin Alvermann, Angela Cotroneo, Antoine Grand and Baptiste Rolle.


Acknowledgements

The realisation of this study would not have been possible without the hard work and commitment of many. Persons from all corners of the globe and with different areas of expertise contributed to the study in the form of research, drafting, reviewing, fact-checking, editing, proofreading and expert advice. We are profoundly grateful to all of them for their dedication, support and assistance. While we have attempted to list each person individually, we are conscious there are also many unnamed persons who have helped in the accomplishment of this work. To all of them, we would also like to express our sincere gratitude and apologize in advance for any inadvertent omissions.

National Research Teams

The reports on State practice were prepared by the following teams:

Algeria: Professor Ahmed Laraba
Angola: Professor Maurice Kamto, with the assistance of Albert Hilaire Anoubon Momo and André Ndomikolayi
Argentina: Professor Raúl EmilioVinuesa, with the assistance of Silvina Sandra Gonzalez Napolitano and Marta María Pastor
Australia: Professor Timothy McCormack, with the assistance of Gideon Boas, Malcolm Langford, Colin Andrew Hatcher, Virginia Newell and Shahyar Rousha
Belgium: Professor Eric David, with the assistance of Isabelle Kuntziger, Garlone Egels and Robert Remacle.
The financial contribution of the Belgian Red Cross is gratefully acknowledged.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Colonel Mugo Geć (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Professor Liljana Mijović, with the assistance of Nedeljko Milijević (Republika Srpska)
Botswana: Professor Oagile Key Dingake
Brazil: Professor Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade
Canada: Professor Katia Boustany (deceased), with the assistance of Maria Molina
Chile: Professor Hernán Salinas Burgos, with the assistance of Daniela Kravetz
China: Professor Tieya Wang (deceased), with the assistance of Professor Yong Zhang
Colombia: Fabricio López Sacconi, with the assistance of Raúl Hernández, Magaly Ramos, Sonia Torres and Mauricio Reyes
Croatia: Professor Maja Seršić, with the assistance of Professor Ksenija Turković, Davorin Lapas and Ivica Kinder
Cuba: Doctora María de los Angeles de Varona Hernández
Egypt: Professor Ahmed Abou El Wafa
El Salvador: Professor Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, with the assistance of Cristina Zeledon
Ethiopia: Professor Andreas Eshete, with the assistance of Alemu Brook
France: Professor Paul Tavernier, with the assistance of Eloi Fillion, Claire Servoin, Karine Mollard-Bannelier, Davide Ferrarini, Dr. Béatrice Maurer, Karine Christakis, Isabelle Capette, François Darribehaude, Sonia Parayre and Marianne Saracco
Germany: Professor Horst Fischer, with the assistance of Dr. Gregor Schotten and Dr. Heike Spieker
India: Professor Nripendra Lal Mitra, with the assistance of Dr. Umesh Veeresh Kadam (research coordinator), Dr. M. K. Nawaz, Dr. S.V. Joga Rao, Dr. V. Vijaya Kumar, M. K. Balachandran, T. S. Matilal and Rekha Chaturvedi
Indonesia: Professor G.P.H. Haryomataram, with the assistance of Fadillah Agus, Kushartoyo Budisantoso, Arlina Permanasari, Andrey Sujatmoko and Aji Wibowo
Iran: Professor Djamchid Momtaz, with the assistance of Farah Rahmani
Iraq: Professor Mohammed Abdallah Ad-Douri, with the assistance of Dr. Janan Sukker
Israel: Professor Yoram Dinstein, with the assistance of Dr. Fania Domb
Italy: Professor Gabriella Venturini, Professor Paolo Benvenuti, with the assistance of Dr. Enrico Casalini and Dr. Marco Graziani
Japan: Professor Hisakazu Fujita, with the assistance of Professor Akira Mayama, Yukiko Takashiba and Hiromi Yoshino
Jordan: Professor Mohamed Yousef Olwan, with the assistance of Lieutenant-Colonel Muhannad Hijazi and Dr. Ghazi Ar-Rashdan
Korea (Republic of): Professor Jae-Ho Sung, with the assistance of Dr. Min-Hyo Lee
Kuwait: Professor Eisa Al-Enezi
Lebanon: Professor Hassan Kassem Jouni, with the assistance of George Khalil Saad and Abdelrahman Makki
Malaysia: Professor Nurhalida binti Mohamed Khalil, with the assistance of Zalina binti Abdul Halim
Netherlands: Anna Nuiten, under the supervision of Dr. Gerard Tanja, Professor Frits Kalshoven, Hans Boddens Hosang, Katrien Coppens, Dr. Liesbeth Lijnzaad and Hanneke van Sambeek.
The financial contribution of the T.M.C. Asser Institute is gratefully acknowledged.
Nicaragua: Professor Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, with the assistance of Cristina Zeledon
Nigeria: Professor Amechi Uchegbu, with the assistance of Dr. B. O. Okere and Muhammed T. Ladan, Esq.
Pakistan: Ahmar Bilal Soofi, Esq.
Peru: Professor Raúl Emilio Vinuesa, with the assistance of Silvina Sandra González Napolitano, Marta María Pastor and Yesenia J. Cabezas Anicama
Philippines: Professor Alberto T. Muyot, with the assistance of Joel P. Raquedan and Vincent Pepito F. Yambao, Jr.
Russian Federation: Professor Igor Pavlovitch Blishchenko (deceased), with the assistance of Professor Aslan Abashidze
Rwanda: Professor Félicité Karomba, with the assistance of Straton Nsengiyumva
South Africa: Professor Michael Cowling
Spain: Dr. José Luis Rodríguez-Villasante y Prieto, with the assistance of Manuel Fernández Gómez, Professor Dr. Julio Jorge Urbina, Juan Manuel García Labajo, Juan Carlos González Barral, Vicente Otero Solana, Dr. Gonzalo Jar Couselo, David Suárez Leoz, Dr. Francisco Alonso Pérez, Sonia Hernández Prada, Professor Dr. Manuel Pérez González, Fernando Pignatelli Meca, Javier Guisández Gómez and Federico Bordas
Syria: Professor Muhammad Aziz Shukri, with the assistance of Dr. Amal Yaziji and Maan Mahasen
United Kingdom: Professor Françoise Hampson, with the assistance of Dr. Jenny Kuper.
The financial contributions of the British Red Cross and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office are gratefully acknowledged.
United States of America: Burrus M. Carnahan, with the assistance of Michael H. Hoffman and Professor Theodor Meron
Uruguay: Professor Raúl EmilioVinuesa, with the assistance of Silvina Sandra González Napolitano and Marta María Pastor
Yugoslavia: Professor Milan Šahović, with the assistance of Dejan Šahović, Dr. Miodrag Starčević and Dr. Bosko Jakovljević
Zimbabwe: Professor Joel Zowa, with the assistance of Dr. Lovemore Madhuku

International Research Teams

The international research teams collected practice from international sources, consolidated their research with those of the national research teams and prepared the first draft of the study. The researchers are Richard Desgagné, Camille Giffard, Gustaf Lind, Gregor Schotten, Heike Spieker and Jean-François Quéguiner.

These researchers worked under the supervision of the Rapporteurs who presented a first assessment of customary international humanitarian law at the meetings of the Steering Committee and a second assessment during the consultations with academic and governmental experts. The Rapporteurs are Professors Georges Abi-Saab, Ove Bring, Eric David, Horst Fischer, Françoise Hampson and Theodor Meron.

The financial contributions of the British and Swedish Red Cross Societies and of the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs towards the work of Professors Hampson and Bring respectively are gratefully acknowledged.

Steering Committee

The study was carried out under the guidance and with the advice of the Steering Committee, whose members are Professors Georges Abi-Saab, Salah El-Din Amer, Ove Bring, Eric David, John Dugard, Florentino Feliciano, Horst Fischer, Françoise Hampson, Theodor Meron, Djamchid Momtaz, Milan Šahović and Raúl Emilio Vinuesa.

Academic and Governmental Experts

The experts invited to comment on the first assessment provided by the international research teams are Abdallah Ad-Douri, Paul Berman, Sadi Çaycý, Michael Cowling, Edward Cummings, Antonio de Icaza, Yoram Dinstein, Jean-Michel Favre, William Fenrick, Dieter Fleck, Juan Carlos Gómez Ramírez, Jamshed A. Hamid, Arturo Hernández-Basave, Ibrahim Idriss, Hassan Kassem Jouni, Kenneth Keith, Githu Muigai, Rein Müllerson, Bara Niang, Mohamed Olwan, Raul C. Pangalangan, Stelios Perrakis, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, Arpád Prandler, Pemmaraju Sreenivasa Rao, Camilo Reyes Rodríguez, Itse E. Sagay, Harold Sandoval, Somboon Sangianbut, Marat A. Sarsembayev, Muhammad Aziz Shukri, Parlaungan Sihombing, Geoffrey James Skillen, Guoshun Sun, Bakhtyar Tuzmukhamedov and Karol Wolfke.

ICRC Research Team

Numerous persons at the ICRC have worked on the study doing research, checking information and providing editorial assistance, in particular for Volume II. Etienne Antheunissens and Tudor Hera carried out research into the ICRC archives. Carolin Alvermann, Sarah Avrillaud, Gilles Benedick, Joanna Bourke-Martignioni, Angela Cotroneo, Eloi Fillion, Emanuela-Chiara Gillard, Neal Gilmore, Antoine Grand, Valérie Houetz, David Kootz, Carine Nassif, Anna Nuiten, Aurélie Legrand, François Moreillon, Stéphane Ojeda, Guilhem Ravier, Baptiste Rolle, Ion Smochina, Nadine Thwaites, Huyghen van den Eertwegh and Barbara Van der Beken contributed to the final version of Volume II during different stages of the long writing process. In so doing, they benefited from the assistance of Laila Bahaa-el-Din, Namuezi Fedi, Tristan Ferraro, Marie-Eve Friedrich, Francisco-Javier Leon-Diaz and Nathalie Stadelmann and from numerous ICRC staff members in the field who provided additional information on national legislation and case-law. Jérémie Labbe Grenier, Yasmine Hadjoudj, Haleh Mehran and Tobias Schaffner completed the final arduous task of checking the footnotes of Volume I. All of these persons amply deserve a heartfelt “thank you”.

Research would not have been possible without the assistance of Monica Cometti, Magalie Develon, Florence Gaspar, Brigitte Gremaud and Jean Perrenoud at the ICRC Information and Documentation Center, as well as all the staff at the UN Library in Geneva, in particular Werner Simon, and Jan Hladík at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris.

In addition, we would like to thank Patricia Barbey, Lydie Beguelin, Vojislava Bursac, Renée Bretton, Séverine Mueller-Moine, Christine Pellaton, Janine Rossier, Elodie Straub, Sandrine Wagner and Nina Zufferey for providing indispensable administrative support.

We are also very grateful to all our colleagues, and former colleagues, at the ICRC who so generously gave of their time to review the drafts of Volume I and who provided many insightful comments, including Raoul Bittel, Serge Bourgeois, Laurent Colassis, Isabelle Daoust, Marie-José d'Aprile, Richard Desgagné, Annemarie Dick, Knut Dörmann, María Teresa Dutli, Alexandre Faite, Emanuela-Chiara Gillard, Thomas Graditzky, Paul Hardy, Peter Herby, Rikke Ishøy, Bertrand Levrat, Charlotte Lindsey-Curtet, Barbara Jaeggi, Isabelle Kuntziger, Jean-Philippe Lavoyer, Kathleen Lawand, Dominique Loye, Louis Maresca, Nils Melzer, Laura Olson, Jelena Pejic, Cristina Pellandini, Gabor Rona, Anne Ryniker, Silvia Schaller, Anna Segall, Philip Spoerri, Sylvie van Lammeren and Ameur Zemmali.

A very special word of thanks is due to Knut Dörmann, Emanuela-Chiara Gillard, Laura Olson, Gabor Rona and Jelena Pejic who read and commented on all the drafts and provided invaluable support throughout the writing process.

We owe a special debt of gratitude for the advice and constructive criticism from Maurice Mendelson and Karol Wolfke, who reviewed the introductory part on the assessment of customary international law, and from Sadi Çaycý, Edward Cummings, Eric David, Yoram Dinstein, William Fenrick, Dieter Fleck, Juan Carlos Gómez Ramírez, Michael Meyer, Theodor Meron, Raul Pangalangan, Peter Rowe, Milan Šahović, Marat Sarsembaev, Helen Upton, Elizabeth Wilmshurst and Karol Wolfke for their comments on different drafts of Volume I and Jan Hladík at UNESCO for reviewing the draft chapter on cultural property.

Special thanks are also due to Knut Dörmann, Horst Fischer, Theodor Meron, the Mines and Arms Unit of the ICRC led by Peter Herby, William Fenrick and Antonio Cassese for reviewing Parts I–VI of Volumes I and II respectively.

The authors express their genuine appreciation to François Bugnion, Jean-Philippe Lavoyer and Yves Sandoz for their advice, comments and support throughout the genesis of this study.

Lastly, our sincere gratitude goes to Christina Grisewood for the monumental task of copy-editing both Volumes I and II, to Philippa Youngman, who prepared the copy for typesetting, and the staff at Cambridge University Press, in particular Finola O’Sullivan for supervising publication and Neil de Cort and Alison Powell for overseeing the production.

This study would not have been possible without the patience, support and encouragement of Mei and Josef.

Geneva, August 2004


Jean-Marie Henckaerts
Louise Doswald-Beck