China
Practice Relating to Nuclear Weapons
In 1996, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
China has consistently advocated the complete prohibition and total elimination of nuclear weapons.
China also made an unconditional commitment not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States and nuclear-weapon-free zones. The delegation of China is of the view that the most realistic solution to the question of the non-use or the non-threat of use of nuclear weapons is to conclude legally binding international instruments through negotiation. We have on many occasions appealed to other nuclear-weapon States to join China in negotiating a treaty on the mutual non-first use of nuclear weapons and also to conclude a legally binding international instrument on the question of the non-use and the non-threat of use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States or nuclear-weapon-free zones. If these objectives are realized, the possibility of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons will simply not exist. 
China, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/51/PV.22, 14 November 1996, p. 7.
In 2003, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
Under current circumstances, it is of great significance to reduce the role of nuclear weapons in international political and military affairs. In this regard, nuclear-weapon States have special and unshirkable responsibilities. It is against the trend of the times to lower the threshold of nuclear war by developing new types of nuclear weapons which are easier to use in actual combat, to refuse to undertake, in a legally binding manner, no use or threat of the use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States, or even to list other countries as targets of nuclear attack. 
China, Statement in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/58/PV.3, 7 October 2003.
In 2004, in a position paper submitted to the 59th Session of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
China stands for complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all kinds of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) including nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and firmly opposes the proliferation of WMDs and their means of delivery.
China has always endorsed the conclusion of international legal instruments on the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons, and has maintained that all countries seriously implement nuclear weapon reduction treaties already reached in a verifiable and irreversible way. Security should be shared by all countries so as to create a positive and favorable international security environment for possible progress in nuclear disarmament. 
China, Position Paper submitted to the 59th Session of the UN General Assembly, 5 August 2004.
In 2004, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
While strengthening international non-proliferation efforts, we should not neglect the importance of advancing the process of arms control and disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament. China advocates the complete prohibition and total destruction of nuclear weapons and never shies away from its responsibilities with respect to nuclear disarmament. China has undertaken unconditionally not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States or against nuclear-weapon-free zones. China urges all nuclear-weapon States to make the same commitment and to conclude a legally binding international instrument to that end. In the meantime, we call upon the countries bearing special responsibility for nuclear disarmament to further substantially and irreversibly reduce their nuclear arsenals, thus creating favourable conditions for complete nuclear disarmament. 
China, Statement in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/59/PV.3, 5 October 2004.
In a white paper on “China’s National Defense in 2004” published in 2004, China stated:
China consistently stands for complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. It always pursues a policy of no first use of nuclear weapons, and undertakes unconditionally not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China did not and will never engage in a nuclear arms race with any other country. It supports the international community in its efforts to start substantive discussions on nuclear disarmament.
In the current situation, the importance and urgency of providing security assurances for non-nuclear-weapon states has become more prominent. China supports the negotiation and conclusion of an international legally binding instrument on this issue. China is the only country among the five nuclear weapon states to commit itself not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China appeals to the four other nuclear weapon states to make the same commitment. 
China, White Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China: China’s National Defense in 2004, December 2004.
In 2005, in a position paper on the UN reforms, China stated:
- China has always stood for the comprehensive prohibition and thorough destruction of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and opposed any forms of proliferation of WMD and their delivery systems. China has been actively promoting the international nuclear disarmament process.
- All nuclear weapon states should conclude a treaty on non-first use of nuclear weapons. They should also commit themselves unconditionally to not using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon countries or regions and conclude a binding international legal instrument in this regard. 
China, Position Paper of the People’s Republic of China on the United Nations Reforms, 7 June 2005.
In 2005, in a white paper on “China’s Endeavours for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation”, China stated:
It is the shared aspiration of the international community as well as the goal of China to thoroughly destroy nuclear weapons and free the world from such weapons.
Before the goal of complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons is achieved, nuclear-weapon states should commit themselves to no first use of nuclear weapons and undertake unconditionally not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. Nuclear-weapon states should abandon the policies of nuclear deterrence based on the first use of nuclear weapons and reduce the role of nuclear weapons in their national security.
China has always stood for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons.
China’s development of nuclear weapons has always been for the purpose of self-defense. Since the first day when it came into possession of nuclear weapons, the Chinese government has solemnly declared that it would not be the first to use such weapons at any time and in any circumstance. Whether confronted with the nuclear threat and nuclear blackmail during the Cold War, or faced with the great changes that have taken place in the international security environment after the Cold War, China has always stayed true to its commitment. China’s policy in this regard will remain unchanged in the future. 
China, White Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China: China’s Endeavours for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, 1 September 2005.