Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
The principle of limitation determines permitted means and prohibited means.
- What are the prohibited means and methods of warfare?
Perfidy is different from a ruse of war and is condemned by the law of war.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
II.1. Ruses of war
… Ruses of war are permitted. …
… On the other hand, IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim of making him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL.
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual further provides:
I.2. Unlawful tactics
It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary and leading him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the LOAC, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. In other words, perfidy consists in acts of hostility under the cover of legitimate protection.