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Côte d’Ivoire
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
The principle of limitation determines permitted means and prohibited means.
- What are the prohibited means and methods of warfare?
- perfidy.
NB:
Perfidy is different from a ruse of war and is condemned by the law of war. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 15–16.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
II.1. Ruses of war
… Ruses of war are permitted. …
… On the other hand, IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim of making him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 41.
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual further provides:
I.2. Unlawful tactics
I.2.1. Perfidy
It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary and leading him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the LOAC, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. In other words, perfidy consists in acts of hostility under the cover of legitimate protection. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 48.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 2015, states:
Article 139
Whoever commits a war crime is punished with life imprisonment.
War crimes are:
2 - other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
- killing or wounding treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army;
4 - other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
- killing or wounding treacherously a combatant adversary;
Article 139-1
The provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 of the above article 139 do not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence or other acts of a similar nature. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Penal Code, 1981, as amended in 2015, Articles 139–139-1.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
… The following acts are regarded as perfidy:
- the feigning of being hors de combat. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 16.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim to make him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL.
The following acts are examples of perfidy:
- feigning of an incapacitation by wounds or sickness. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 41; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 48.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (instruction of first-year trainee officers):
… IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim to make him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL.
The following acts are examples of perfidy:
- feigning surrender. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 41.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 2015, states:
Article 139
Whoever commits a war crime is punished with life imprisonment.
War crimes are:
2 - other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
- making improper use of a flag of truce … , resulting in death or serious personal injury[.] 
Côte d’Ivoire, Penal Code, 1981, as amended in 2015, Article 139.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction): “The following acts are regarded as perfidy: … The misleading use of … the white flag of truce”. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 16.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim to make him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL.
The following acts are examples of perfidy:
- feigning of an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 41; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 48.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 2015, states:
Article 139
Whoever commits a war crime is punished with life imprisonment.
War crimes are:
2 - other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
- making improper use of a flag of truce … , resulting in death or serious personal injury[.] 
Côte d’Ivoire, Penal Code, 1981, as amended in 2015, Article 139.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
Lesson 1. Basic notions of IHL
… The following acts are regarded as perfidy:
- The misleading use of all distinctive emblems (emblem of the red cross, the red crystal and the red crescent) …
Lesson 4. Breaches and repression of violations of IHL
I. Grave violations
They are enumerated by the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols, as well as by the Ivorian Penal Code.
They are:
- perfidious use of protective signs,
I.2 Sanctions
In Côte d’Ivoire, the Penal Code has provided for the repression of certain violations:
- articles 472 and 473 [punish] the usurpation of a uniform, a decoration, signs and emblems. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 13, 15–16 and 29–30.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual further provides:
IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim to make him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL.
The following acts are examples of perfidy:
- using unduly the emblem of the red cross, the red crescent or the red crystal or any other distinctive sign. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 41–42.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 2015, states:
Article 139
Whoever commits a war crime is punished with life imprisonment.
War crimes are:
2 - other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
- making improper use … of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions, resulting in death or serious personal injury[.] 
Côte d’Ivoire, Penal Code, 1981, as amended in 2015, Article 139.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders):
I.2.1. Perfidy
It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. …
Here are some examples of perfidy; if an act of hostility is made by feigning:
d. protected status by the use of signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations or of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 48.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 2015, states:
Article 139
Whoever commits a war crime is punished with life imprisonment.
War crimes are:
2 - other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
- making improper use … of the flag or of the military insignia and uniform … of the United Nations … , resulting in death or serious personal injury[.] 
Côte d’Ivoire, Penal Code, 1981, as amended in 2015, Article 139.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim to make him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL.
The following acts are examples of perfidy:
- feigning of civilian or non-combatant status. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 41–42; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 48.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders):
I.2.1. Perfidy
It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. …
Here are some examples of perfidy; if an act of hostility is made by feigning:
d. protected status by the use of signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations or of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 48.