Practice Relating to Rule 30. Persons and Objects Displaying the Distinctive Emblem
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states that “[a]ny unlawful attack on a clearly recognised protected object” is a grave breach of the law of armed conflict and a war crime.
South Africa’s LOAC Teaching Manual (2008) states:
- Targeting Prohibitions. It is prohibited to specifically target those possible targets which are specially protected under the  Geneva Conventions and [the 1977] Additional Protocol I such as:
- Persons/Places Identified by the Distinctive Emblems
. Such as the red cross/crescent on a white background, civil defence, works and installations containing dangerous forces and cultural property.
South Africa’s ICC Act (2002) reproduces the war crimes listed in the 1998 ICC Statute, including in both international and non-international armed conflicts: “intentionally directing attacks against buildings, material, medical units and transport, and personnel using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions in conformity with international law”.