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Viet Nam
Practice Relating to Rule 154. Obedience to Superior Orders
Viet Nam’s Law on Viet Nam People’s Army Officers (1999) states:
Upon receipt of orders from their commanders, if officers have grounds to believe that such orders contravene laws, they shall have to immediately report such to the persons who have issued such orders; in cases where they still have to obey the orders, they shall have to promptly report to the immediate superiors of the persons who have issued such orders and shall not have to bear responsibility for the consequences arising from the implementation of such orders. 
Viet Nam, Law on Viet Nam People’s Army Officers, 1999, § 27.3.
Viet Nam’s Criminal Code (2015), which includes war crimes, states:
Chapter IV
CASES OF EXEMPTION FROM CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY
Article 26. Following orders of commanders or superiors
A person who inflicts damage while following an order of his/her commander or superior in the army to perform national defense and security duties is exempt from criminal responsibility if he/she complies with procedures for reporting to the order giver but the order giver still request[s] that the order be followed. In this case, the order giver shall bear criminal responsibility.
This provision does not apply to the cases specified in Clause 2 Article 421, Clause 2 Article 422, and Clause 2 Article 423 hereof.
Chapter XXV INFRINGEMENTS UPON DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SERVICEMEN AND COOPERATORS WITH THE ARMY IN WARTIME
Article 392. People having criminal responsibility for infringement upon duties and responsibilities of servicemen
1. Servicemen, military workers and employees.
2. Reserve servicemen during training period.
3. Militia members [cooperating] with the army in wartime.
4. Citizens recruited to the army.
Article 393. Giving orders against the law
1. Any person who abuses his/her position to give order[s] against the law and as a result causes serious consequences shall face a penalty of up to 03 years' community [service] or 06–60 months’ imprisonment.
2. This offence committed in any of the following cases shall carry a penalty of 03–10 years’ imprisonment:
a) The offence is committed in battle;
b) The offence is committed in a warzone;
c) The offence is committed during a rescue mission;
d) The offence is committed in time of emergency;
dd) The offence results in very serious consequences.
3. If the offence results in extremely serious consequences or in other extremely serious cases, the offender shall face a penalty of 07–15 years’ imprisonment.
Article 394. Insubordination
1. Any person who defies or deliberately fails to follow an order given by a competent person shall face a penalty of 06–60 months’ imprisonment.
2. This offence committed in any of the following cases shall carry a penalty of 03–10 years’ imprisonment:
a) The offender is a commander or commissioned officer;
b) The offender drags another person into committing the offence;
c) The offence involves the use of violence;
d) The offence results in very serious consequences.
3. This offence committed in any of the following cases shall carry a penalty of 07–15 years’ imprisonment:
a) The offence is committed in battle;
b) The offence is committed in a warzone;
c) The offence is committed during a rescue mission;
d) The offence is committed in time of emergency;
dd) The offence results in very serious consequences.
4. If the offence results in extremely serious consequences, the offender shall face a penalty of 12–20 years' imprisonment or life imprisonment.
Article 395. Failure to strictly follow orders
1. Any person follows an order given by a competent person in an inattentive, tardy, or arbitrary manner and as a result causes serious consequences shall face a penalty of up to 03 years’ community [service] or 06–36 months’ imprisonment.
2. This offence committed in any of the following cases shall carry a penalty of 03–10 years’ imprisonment:
a) The offence is committed in battle;
b) The offence is committed in a warzone;
c) The offence is committed during a rescue mission;
d) The offence is committed in time of emergency;
dd) The offence results in very serious consequences or extremely serious consequences.
Chapter XXVI
DISRUPTION OF PEACE, CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, AND WAR CRIMES
Article 421. Disruption of peace, provocation of war of aggression
Article 422. Crimes against humanity
1. Any person who, whether in peacetime or wartime, commits genocide against [the] population of an area, destroys sources of living [or the] cultural or spiritual life of a nation or sovereign territory, upsets the foundation of a society in order to sabotage it, or commits other acts of genocide, or destroys of the environment shall face a penalty of 10–20 years’ imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death.
2. [If t]his offence is committed under pressure or order[s] given by superior officers, the offender shall face a penalty of 10–20 years’ imprisonment.
Article 423. War crimes
1. Any person in wartime who orders or directly commits the murder of civilians, wounded people, or prisoner[s] of war[]; pillages; destroys residential areas; uses banned war instruments or methods[;] or commits other acts that seriously violate international law or an international agreement to which [the] Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a signatory shall face a penalty of 10–20 years’ imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death[.]
2. [If t]his offence is committed under pressure or order[s] given by superior officers, the offender shall face a penalty of 10–20 years’ imprisonment. 
Viet Nam, Criminal Code, 2015, Articles 26, 392–395 and 421–423.