Practice Relating to Rule 106. Conditions for Prisoner-of-War Status
Section B. Levée en masse
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states:
The inhabitants of an unoccupied territory who, as the enemy approaches, spontaneously take up arms en masse to combat the invading troops without having had the time to form regular armed forces will be considered to be combatants
(a) if they carry weapons openly;
(b) if they respect the law of war.