Practice Relating to Rule 155. Defence of Superior Orders
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) recalls:
According to the so-called Nuremberg principles, the fact that a person has acted upon the orders of a government or a superior shall not free him from liability in international law, provided that he had a genuine possibility of avoiding the act in question.
Sweden’s Penal Code (1962), as amended in 1998, provides:
An act committed by a person on the order of someone to whom he owes obedience shall not result in his being liable to punishment, if in view of the nature of obedience due, the nature of the act and the circumstances in general, it was his duty to obey the order.