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Peru
Practice Relating to Rule 25. Medical Personnel
Section A. Respect for and protection of medical personnel
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
[A]ll medical personnel performing their duties in armed conflicts must be respected and protected. This means that they must not be attacked and must be defended, assisted and supported when necessary. This right applies in all circumstances, and the obligation that it entails is binding on everyone, particularly combatants, regardless of which side they belong to. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 92.a; see also § 100.
The manual also states:
b. The protection to which medical personnel are entitled is not an individual privilege granted to them, but rather a natural corollary to the requirement to respect and protect the victims of armed conflict.
c. Medical personnel must refrain from any act of hostility. They are protected because they must remain neutral towards the armed conflict in which they are performing their duties. If they cease to be neutral, they lose this protection.
“Neutrality”, in respect of medical personnel, is the obligation to refrain from any hostile act or, in general, any involvement in military operations. If they meet this requirement, they are granted special protection. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 83.b and c.
The manual further states:
(1) When permanent military medical personnel fall into the hands of the enemy, they do not become prisoners of war, although they can be retained to provide assistance to wounded and sick members of their own armed forces who have been captured.
(2) Captured military medical personnel can only be retained for as long as there are medical duties for them to perform. When this is not the case, they must be repatriated.
(3) Civilian medical personnel who fall into the hands of the enemy cannot be detained and must be allowed to continue performing their medical duties. If security measures have to be taken, civilian medical personnel are entitled to all the protection granted to protected persons. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 31.d.(1)–(3); see also § 156.d.
The manual also states: “Members of the crews of hospital ships may not be captured during the time they are in the service of these vessels.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 31.d.(1)–(3); see also § 156.b.
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
The norms of international humanitarian law provide that medical personnel performing their duties in armed conflict must be respected and protected. This means that they must not be attacked and must be defended, assisted and supported when necessary. This right applies in all circumstances, and the obligation that it entails is binding on everyone, particularly soldiers, regardless of which side they belong to. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 83(a), p. 285.
The manual also states:
b. The protection of medical personnel is not an individual privilege granted to them, but rather a natural corollary to the requirement to respect and protect the victims of armed conflict.
c. Medical personnel must refrain from any act of hostility. Members of the medical personnel are protected because they must remain neutral towards the armed conflict in which they are performing their duties. If they cease to be neutral, they lose this protection.
“Neutrality”, in respect of medical personnel, is the obligation to refrain from any hostile act or, in general, any involvement in military operations. If they meet this requirement, they are granted special protection. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 74(b)–(c), p. 272.
The manual further states:
(1) When permanent military medical personnel fall into the hands of the enemy … they can be retained to provide assistance to wounded and sick members of their own armed forces who have been captured.
(2) Captured military medical personnel can only be retained for as long as there are medical duties for them to perform. When this is not the case, they must be repatriated.
(3) Civilian medical personnel who fall into the hands of the enemy cannot be detained and must be allowed to continue performing their medical duties. If security measures have to be taken, civilian medical personnel are entitled to all the protection granted to protected persons. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 32(10)(d), p. 250.
The manual also states: “Members of the crews of hospital ships may not be captured during the time they are in the service of these vessels.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 147(b), p. 333.
In its Glossary of Terms, the manual defines “relief society” as: “A society recognized by the respective government, whose members search, rescue, transport, and attend to the wounded and sick and provide assistance to prisoners of war. Their personnel are analogous to military medical personnel.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 415.
Peru’s Military and Police Criminal Code (2010), in a chapter entitled “Crimes against humanitarian operations and emblems”, states:
A member of the military or the police shall be punished with deprivation of liberty of not less than six years and not more than twenty-five years if, in a state of emergency and when the Armed Forces assume control of the internal order, he or she:
2. Attacks medical … personnel … who are identified with the protective signs of the [1949] Geneva Conventions in accordance with International Humanitarian Law. 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 95(2).