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Peru
Practice Relating to Rule 1. The Principle of Distinction between Civilians and Combatants
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “A distinction must be made at all times between … combatants and civilians.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 27.a(2)(a).
The manual further states:
The Principle of Distinction establishes the obligation to observe a distinction between those who take part in the hostilities and those who do not. The distinction between people and objects that are considered military objectives and those that are not is important, because it determines whether or not a target can be attacked. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 18.
The manual also states:
Commanders must take all necessary measures and ensure that their subordinates distinguish between people … that are considered military objectives and those that are not both in the conduct of operations and in their behaviour during engagements. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 24.c.(1).
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “A distinction must be made at all times between … combatants and civilians”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 19, p. 224; see also § 61(a), p. 264, and § 122(a), p. 313.
The manual also states: “The Principle of Distinction establishes the obligation to distinguish between those who take part in hostilities and those who do not.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 19, p. 224.
The manual further states: “The general principles on the means of combat and their use are based on the fundamental distinction between combatants … and civilians”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 1, p. 360.
Peru’s Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces (2010) states:
The following principles are recognized by the norms of international humanitarian law as applying before, during and after the use of force:
b. Distinction … is the differentiation which must be made between those who directly participate in hostilities and those who do not. 
Peru, Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces, 2010, Article 7(b).
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “Non-protected persons … [include] all combatants who take a direct part in the hostilities.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 33.b.
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “Non-protected persons are combatants who directly participate in hostilities.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 34(c), p. 252.
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “Protected persons are those who do not, or no longer, take a direct part in the hostilities and must not be attacked. They include the … [c]ivilian population.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 33.a.(1); see also § 17.
The manual also states that “[a]ttacks on people taking no part in hostilities” is a war crime. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 31.a.
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “Attacks against civilians are prohibited.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 18, p. 224.
The manual also states that it is a war crime to “attack the civilian population”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 32(a)(5), p. 248.
In its Glossary of Terms, the manual further states:
Protected persons: The following are persons protected by international law:
c. Civilians who, because of a conflict or an occupation, find themselves in the power of a Party of which they are not nationals. Moreover, civilians are protected from the dangers arising from military operations. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § c, p. 411.
The manual also states: “Air bombardment … in order to injure non-combatants is prohibited.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 163(a), p. 343.
Peru’s Code of Military and Police Justice (2006) states:
A member of the military or police shall be imprisoned for a period of no less than eight and no more than 15 years if he or she in the context of an international or non-international armed conflict:
1. Directs an attack by any means against a civilian population. 
Peru, Code of Military and Police Justice, 2006, Article 95(1).
This article is no longer in force. Along with certain other articles in this legislation, it was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court (en banc decision for case file No. 0012-2006-PI-TC, 8 January 2007) because it does not stipulate a crime committed in the line of duty that would fall under the jurisdiction of a military court pursuant to Article 173 of Peru’s Constitution.
Peru’s Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces (2010) states: “The civilian population may not be attacked.” 
Peru, Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces, 2010, Article 7(b).
Peru’s Military and Police Criminal Code (2010), in a chapter titled “Crimes involving the use of prohibited methods in the conduct of hostilities”, states:
A member of the military or the police shall be punished with deprivation of liberty of not less than six years and not more than twenty-five years if, in a state of emergency and when the Armed Forces assume control of the internal order, he or she:
1. Attacks by any means the civilian population or a person who is not directly participating in hostilities. 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 91(1).
In 2004, in the Gabriel Orlando Vera Navarrete case, Peru’s Constitutional Court stated that “international humanitarian law prohibits in absolute terms any attacks on the lives of civilians and unarmed persons anytime and anywhere”. 
Peru, Constitutional Court, Gabriel Orlando Vera Navarrete case, Case No. 2798-04-HC/TC, Judgment of 9 December 2004, § 15.
In 2005, in the Juan Nolberto Rivero Lazo case, Peru’s Constitutional Court stated that “international humanitarian law prohibits in absolute terms any attacks on the lives of civilians and unarmed persons anytime and anywhere”. 
Peru, Constitutional Court, Juan Nolberto Rivero Lazo case, Case No. 4677-2005-HC/TC, Judgment of 12 August 2005, § 18.
In 2006, in the Lucanmarca case, the Second Provisional Criminal Chamber of Peru’s Supreme Court of Justice stated that “international humanitarian law prohibits in absolute terms attacks against the lives of unarmed civilians anywhere and anytime”. 
Peru, Supreme Court of Justice, Second Provisional Criminal Chamber, Lucanmarca case, Case No. 560-03, Judgment of 13 October 2006, p. 189.