相关规则
Japan
Practice Relating to Rule 37. Open Towns and Non-Defended Localities
Section B. Establishment of non-defended localities
According to the Report on the Practice of Japan, the Japanese Government explained to the Diet in 1984 that “authorities which may declare non-defended localities and may open them to enemy occupation are States party to a conflict or authorities responsible for the defense of the localities in question”. They are “generally speaking, States or military authorities”, but “a local government is not excluded from those authorities if it possesses command authority and has the power to promise an opponent not to defend itself”. 
Japan, Explanation by the Government at the House of Councillors Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, 31 July 1984, Minutes of the House of Councillors Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, No. 13, pp. 3–5, Report on the Practice of Japan, 1998, Chapter 1.8.