Practice Relating to Rule 28. Medical Units
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states that “specifically protected objects may not become military objectives and may not be attacked”, including units of the military and civilian medical services.
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) states: “mobile medical units [and] fixed establishments of the medical service … must be respected and protected”.
The manual qualifies “attacks on medical units … which must be respected and protected at all times” as war crimes.
Italy’s Law of War Decree (1938), as amended in 1992, states that the establishments and material of the military medical service must be “respected and protected”.
The Decree further provides that the protection of military medical services is contingent on the condition that “under no circumstances may they be used for purposes other than those intended”.