Practice Related to Rule 95. Forced Labour
Ethiopia’s Penal Code (1957) provides that “systematic deportation, transfer or detention in concentration or forced labour camps” is a war crime against the civilian population.
Ethiopia’s Penal Code (1957) provides that it is a war crime to forcibly enlist the civilian population, prisoners of war and interned persons in the enemy’s armed forces, intelligence services or administration.
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code (2004) provides:
Article 270.- War Crimes against the Civilian Population.
Whoever, in time of war, armed conflict or occupation organizes, orders or engages in, against the civilian population and in violation of the rules of public international law and of international humanitarian conventions:
(d) forcible enlistment in the enemy’s defence forces, intelligence services or administration …
is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty-five years, or, in more serious cases, with life imprisonment or death.
Article 272.- War Crimes against Prisoners and Interned Persons.
Whoever, in the circumstances defined above:
(b) compels [prisoners of war or interned persons] to enlist in the enemy’s defence forces or intelligence or administrative services, is punishable in accordance with Article 270.
The Criminal Code of 2004 repealed Ethiopia’s Penal Code of 1957.