Practice Relating to Rule 25. Medical Personnel
Under Ethiopia’s Penal Code (1957), “the killing, torture or inhuman treatment or other acts entailing direct suffering or physical or mental injury to … members of the medical or first-aid services” is punishable as a war crime.
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code (2004) states:
Article 271.- War Crimes against Wounded, Sick or Shipwrecked Persons or Medical Services.
(1) Whoever, in the circumstances defined above [in time of war, armed conflict or occupation] organizes, orders or engages in:
(a) killings, torture, withholding medical care and attention required by their condition or inhuman treatment or other acts entailing direct suffering or physical or mental injury to wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons, or to members of the medical or first aid service …
is punishable in accordance with Article 270 [with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty-five years, or, in more serious cases, with life imprisonment or death].
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code of 2004 replaced the Penal Code of 1957.