Practice Relating to Rule 7. The Principle of Distinction between Civilian Objects and Military Objectives
Section B. Attacks against military objectives
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides: “Military operations shall be directed only against military objectives.”
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “Military operations may only be directed against military objectives.”
In 2010, in the Couso case
, which concerned the killing of a Spanish journalist in Baghdad on 8 April 2003 by troops of the United States of America, the Criminal Chamber of Spain’s Supreme Court referred to norms of IHL relevant to the case under review, including Article 52(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I.
In 1993 and 1995, the Government of Spain made specific statements in connection with the armed conflicts in the Gulf and Bosnia and Herzegovina, endorsing the principle that attacks must be directed only against military objectives.