Practice Relating to Rule 45. Causing Serious Damage to the Natural Environment
Section B. Environmental modification techniques
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) includes among prohibited methods of warfare all military or other hostile uses of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-term or severe effects, which are adopted as a means of destruction, damage, or injury to any other State.
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “It is prohibited to use environmental modification techniques for military or hostile purposes, which could cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the environment, as a means to cause destruction, damage or harm to another State.”