Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
Section A. Forced displacement
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states: “The [civilian] population may not … be deported outside the occupied territory.”
The manual also states that the following “are currently considered as war crimes … if committed against any person not or no longer participating in hostilities: … unlawful deportations or transfers”.
In the History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, under the heading “Basic rules of IHL” and in a section on “Treatment”, stated: “Forced displacement of civilians is prohibited.ˮ
In the History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training, under the heading “[O]ffences related to violations of humanitarian law”, listed “[u]nlawful deportation or transfer … of civilians”.