Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
Section B. Evacuation of the civilian population
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) provides:
A temporary evacuation of certain areas shall be permissible if the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand. An evacuation of persons to areas outside the bounds of the occupied territory shall be permitted only in case of emergency.
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law.