相关规则
Colombia
Practice Relating to Rule 34. Journalists
Colombia’s Operational Law Manual (2009) states:
iv. Journalists
“Civilian journalists engaged in professional missions in areas of armed conflict must be respected and protected, as long as they are not taking a direct part in hostilities.” This rule is recognized in both international and non-international armed conflicts.
In addition to the prohibition of attacking journalists, practice indicates that it is important in some cases to ensure the safety of media representatives. Other acts [against journalists] that have been condemned include police violence, threats of prosecution, defamation campaigns, physical violence, intimidation, detention and murder.
Like civilians, journalists lose their protection against attack when and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities. 
Colombia, Manual de Derecho Operacional Manual FF.MM. 3-41 Público, Primera Edición 2009, Comando General de las Fuerzas Militares, aprobado por el Comandante General de las Fuerzas Armadas por Disposición Número 056, 7 December 2009, pp. 46–47.
[footnotes in original omitted]
The manual also states
4. Rules of engagement
c. Definitions
(i) Definitions for rules of engagement for land combat …
- Protected persons: Protected persons are the following:
(viii) journalists. 
Colombia, Manual de Derecho Operacional Manual FF.MM. 3-41 Público, Primera Edición 2009, Comando General de las Fuerzas Militares, aprobado por el Comandante General de las Fuerzas Armadas por Disposición Número 056, 7 December 2009, pp. 103, 107 and 109.
In 2007, in the Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated:
International humanitarian law, in its treaty and customary form applicable in internal armed conflicts, provides for the special protection of certain categories of persons and property particularly vulnerable to the effects of war. The main categories of persons specially protected [include] … journalists. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, Judgment of 25 April 2007, pp. 120.
In 2010, in the Fuentes Montaño case, the Criminal Appeals Chamber of Colombia’s Supreme Court of Justice revised the first and second instance judgments to qualify as murder of protected persons the crime of which the defendant had been convicted. The Court held:
The murder of protected persons became part of domestic law through Article 135, in Title II of Law No. 599 of 2000 [Colombia’s Penal Code], under the heading “Offences against persons and objects protected under international humanitarian law”. The article contains the following definitions:
… For the purposes of this article and the other rules of the present Title, it is understood that the term ‘protected persons’ according to international humanitarian law includes:
5. Journalists on mission or accredited war correspondents. 
Colombia, Supreme Court of Justice, Fuentes Montaño case, Judgment, 27 January 2010, pp. 24–25.
In 2010, in the El Iguano case, the Justice and Peace Chamber of Colombia’s High District Court of Bogotá convicted a member of the paramilitary group Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia) of several crimes committed against the civilian population. The Court stated that “the protected persons mentioned in article 135 of the [2000] Penal Code [on the prohibition of killing protected persons during an armed conflict] fall into these categories: … 3) … journalists or authorized war correspondents”. 
Colombia, High District Court of Bogotá, El Iguano case, Judgment, 2 December 2010, § 216.
In 2008, in its Comprehensive Human Rights and IHL Policy, the Ministry of National Defence of Colombia stated:
121. The constitutional mandate which requires the National Security Forces to guarantee people’s rights and freedoms also carries an obligation to adopt measures in relation to special groups whose needs have to be addressed in specific ways … in accordance with Article 13 of the Constitution. Indigenous peoples, persons of African descent, displaced persons, women, children, victims of forced disappearance, human rights activists, trade unionists, journalists, members of the Medical Mission and persons covered by precautionary measures and provisional measures under the Inter-American Human Rights System are amongst the sectors of the population identified as groups whose needs must be specifically addressed.
122. The Ministry of Defence issues directives identifying the individual and collective rights of these groups and the special duties and obligations of the State in relation to them. It also issues general preventive and protective guidelines which must be disseminated at all levels by the National Security Forces. …
123. While it is the duty of every Colombian citizen to defend and promote human rights as the basis of peaceful co-existence, this duty becomes even more emphatic when those concerned enjoy collective rights recognized by international human rights instruments and are the subject of special measures. For that reason the Comprehensive Policy is aimed at giving special protection to those groups through special guidelines and instructions issued to the National Security Forces.
124. The National Security Forces have made great progress in addressing the particular needs of special groups and communities: in many parts of Colombia they have managed to initiate more harmonious relations and to deal more closely with those needs. To consolidate this work, the following strategies will be pursued:
- Attention to special groups: The programme for dealing with these groups considers their complaints and if there is evidence of infringements of human rights or IHL, proposes amicable agreements and encourages full reparation. It also formulates special protection policies for these groups and conducts workshops and training courses both for groups requiring specific attention to their needs, and for the National Security Forces.
- Liaison officers: These officers will help to create closer links between the community and the troops at brigade level, or its equivalent in the other services, thereby facilitating collaboration that is harmonious and respectful on matters relating to human rights and IHL. 
Colombia, Ministry of National Defence, Comprehensive Human Rights and IHL Policy, January 2008, §§ 121–124; see also § 46.
The Ministry of National Defence also stated:
As regards to the special protection strategy for journalists, the Ministry of Defence organizes annual awareness and training workshops presented by officials from the Public Defender’s Office and the Foundation for the Freedom of the Press (Fundación para la Libertad de Prensa: FLIP) for members of the National Security Forces. 
Colombia, Ministry of National Defence, Comprehensive Human Rights and IHL Policy, January 2008, § 148.
In 2008, in its sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Colombia stated:
200. The state democratic security policy, which guided Government actions during the reporting period, provides for strengthening the rule of law throughout the country as a means to protect the entire population against human rights violations and breaches of international humanitarian law. However, inasmuch as some Colombians are in a situation of special vulnerability which requires special attention by the State, the Government has worked to strengthen programmes geared to the protection of that population, without neglecting the preventive perspective.
211. Protection Programme. In the area of protection, we should note the strengthening of the Protection Programme, unique in the world, created in 1997 as a result of a joint effort between Government and civil society to protect certain population groups particularly vulnerable to the actions [of] illegal armed organizations in regard to their rights to life, integrity, liberty and personal security.
212. Initially, this programme sought to protect rights to life, integrity, personal liberty and security of trade union leaders and leaders of human rights NGOs, but its coverage has been extended to the following population groups:
d) Journalists and communicators[.] 
Colombia, Sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 2 June 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/COL/6, submitted 10 December 2008, §§ 200 and 211–212.
In 2010, in its Directive No. 11 providing guidance for judicial attorneys and disciplinary officials regarding the crime of murder of protected persons, Colombia’s Attorney General stated:
[The] passive subject [of the crime of murder of protected persons is] any person who has the status of a protected person. Article 135 [of the Colombian Criminal Code], in accordance with international humanitarian law, considers as protected persons … journalists. 
Colombia, Attorney General of the Nation, Directive No. 11, Guidance Regarding the Crime of Murder of Protected Persons, 14 July 2010, p. 2. See a similar statement in Directive No. 16 of the Attorney General of the Nation, Guidance Regarding the Crime of Murder of Protected Persons, 14 October 2010, p. 2.