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Colombia
Practice Relating to Rule 116. Accounting for the Dead
In 1995, Colombia’s Council of State held that a report must be made concerning the circumstances of death: in the aftermath of a battle, the bodies of all those killed, whether combatants or non-combatants, must be treated in accordance with forensic requirements in order to “permit complete identification and establishment of the circumstances of death”. 
Colombia, Council of State, Case No. 10941, Judgment, 6 September 1995, pp. 37–42.
In 2008, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Colombia stated:
202. … [P]rogrammes have been developed in all areas of activity of the [National] Institute [of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences] for a reliable identification of the deceased in any medico-legal post-mortem, including the specification of the final destination of the body where exhumation is required for corroboration purposes. A national registry of missing persons is being developed in order to implement these measures. The progress in question is reflected in decree No. 4218/05 on the National Registry of Missing Persons. That registry constitutes an information system containing reference data provided by the intervening bodies in their area of competence. It is a source of accurate, opportune and useful information for identifying corpses having undergone an autopsy within the national territory; guiding the search for persons reported as victims of forced disappearance; and facilitating follow-up on such cases and the activation of the Urgent Search Mechanism.
203. Institute staff is constantly kept up to date in the area of human rights and IHL. For instance, the 13th National Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences Congress, held in 2006, addressed the following topics: (i) Differences and relation between human rights and IHL; (ii) the concept of forced disappearance; (iii) forensic sciences and humanitarian challenges; [and] (iv) relations between the inter-American system of human rights, the International Criminal Court and the domestic juridical system. 
Colombia, Fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 21 February 2008, UN Doc. CAT/C/COL/4, submitted on 21 January 2008, §§ 202–203.
[footnote in original omitted]
In 1995, the Colombian Council of State stated that the bodies of enemy dead must be placed at the disposal of the competent authority and may not be concealed. Commanders are bound to report the death of detainees and their place of burial. 
Colombia, Council of State, Case No. 11369, Judgment, 6 February 1997, pp. 20–25.
Colombia’s Justice and Peace Law (2005) states:
ARTICLE 2. SCOPE, INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF THE LAW. This law regulates the investigation, prosecution, punishment and judicial guarantees of persons connected to organized armed groups outside the law who have been perpetrators of or participants in criminal offences committed during and as a result of their membership of these groups and who have decided to demobilize and contribute decisively to national reconciliation.
ARTICLE 15. CLARIFICATION OF THE TRUTH. …
With the cooperation of demobilized individuals, the judicial police shall investigate the whereabouts of kidnapped or disappeared persons …
ARTICLE 44. ACTS OF REPARATION …
… [T]he convicted person shall … satisfactorily carry out the acts of reparation imposed on them …
Acts of full reparation include the following:
4[4].5. The search for the disappeared and the remains of deceased people, as well as assistance in identifying and reburying them[.] 
Colombia, Justice and Peace Law, 2005, Articles 2, 15 and 44.
The Law also states:
The purpose of this law is to facilitate the peace process and the individual or collective reintegration into civilian life of members of armed groups outside the law, while guaranteeing the victims’ rights to truth, justice and reparation.
An organized armed groups outside the law is understood to be a guerilla or self-defence group, or a significant and integral part thereof, such as blocs, fronts or other forms of these same organizations, as referred to in Law 728 of 2002 [which amends, inter alia, Article 8 of the 1997 Law on Judicial Cooperation to read, in its paragraph 1: “In accordance with international humanitarian law, and for the purposes of this law, armed groups outside the law is understood to mean that which, under responsible command, exercises such control over a part of the territory as to enable it to carry out sustained and concerted military operations”]. 
Colombia, Justice and Peace Law, 2005, Article 1.
In 2009, Colombia’s National Council for Social and Economic Policy approved a policy on the Consolidation of Mechanisms for the Tracing and Identification of Disappeared Persons in Colombia. The policy states:
iii. Responsibilities of the Colombian State on the search and identification of disappeared persons
… [I]t is possible to establish a set of State obligations to be observed by the tracing and identification mechanisms for persons disappeared as a result of violence. …
- To use the necessary investigative, operational, technical and scientific tools for irrefutably determining the identity of the persons whose bodies or human remains were found, and for verifying whether these identities correspond to persons accounted as disappeared.
- To return to their relatives the bodies or human remains of disappeared persons that have been found dead and have been fully identified and to dispose of the human remains which have not been fully identified in such a way as to prevent their degradation or loss. 
Colombia, National Planning Department, National Council for Social and Economic Policy, Consolidation of Mechanisms for the Tracing and Identification of Disappeared Persons in Colombia, CONPES Document No. 3590, 1 June 2009, pp. 24 and 25.
[footnote in original omitted]
The policy also states:
Single Virtual Identification Center (CUVI)
The CUVI was created in 2007 to support the National Justice and Peace Unit and the National Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Unit and it is constituted by a multidisciplinary and inter-institutional team tasked with: “ … 5. Collect[ing], analys[ing] and stor[ing] data aimed at the identification of human remains found during exhumations whithin the framework of Law 975 of 2005 and the treaties related to the matter”.
The creation of the CUVI responds to the recognition that “given the complexity of the processes of exhumation and identification of bodies, for the most part victims of the conflict that has affected Colombia for several decades, taking into account the significant amount of information obtained … on the existence of graves containing a significant amount of … remains, … [and] the corresponding investigation and the scientific work required for the appropriate exhumation and identification, it is essential to bring together resources and inter-institutional efforts to to achieve the result expected by the national and international community in the area of the Justice and Peace processes, of human rights and international humanitarian law. 
Colombia, National Planning Department, National Council for Social and Economic Policy, Consolidation of Mechanisms for the Tracing and Identification of Disappeared Persons in Colombia, CONPES Document No. 3590, 1 June 2009, p. 23.
The policy further states:
The disappearance of a family member, and thus the lack of knowledge of their fate and whereabouts, has psychological, economic, social and legal consequences that extend even to the communities and affect their ability to face the past and take part in a lasting peace and reconciliation process. These disappearances are usually associated with violations of human rights and international humanitarian law[.] 
Colombia, National Planning Department, National Council for Social and Economic Policy, Consolidation of Mechanisms for the Tracing and Identification of Disappeared Persons in Colombia, CONPES Document No. 3590, 1 June 2009, pp. 33–34.