相关规则
Switzerland
Practice Relating to Rule 96. Hostage-Taking
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) prohibits the taking of hostages and any order given to that end. It specifies that the taking of protected civilians as hostages is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Articles 147(d)–(e), 154 and 192(1)(c).
Switzerland’s Military Criminal Code (1927), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states in a chapter entitled “War crimes”:
Art. 111
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than five years for any person who commits, in the context of an international armed conflict, a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely one of the following acts against persons or objects protected under one of these Conventions:
b. taking of hostages;
2 Acts covered by paragraph 1 committed in the context of a non-international armed conflict are equivalent to grave breaches of international humanitarian law if they are directed against a person or object protected by that law. 
Switzerland, Military Criminal Code, 1927, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 111(1)(b) and (2).
[footnote in original omitted]
Switzerland’s Penal Code (1937), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states under the title “War crimes”:
Art. 264c
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than five years for any person who commits, in the context of an international armed conflict, a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely one of the following acts against persons or objects protected under one of these Conventions:
b. taking of hostages;
2 Acts covered by paragraph 1 committed in the context of a non-international armed conflict are equivalent to grave breaches of international humanitarian law if they are directed against a person or object protected by that law. 
Switzerland, Penal Code, 1937, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 264c (1)(b) and (2).
[footnote in original omitted]
Switzerland’s Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Strategy (2009) states that “the weaker of the adversaries frequently resort to practices that are prohibited under international law, e.g. … hostage-taking”. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Strategy, 2009, p. 3.
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Hostage taking
Hostage taking is the unlawful capture of a person resulting in the detention and holding of this person for the purpose of forcing a third party to take a given course of action, failing which the hostage will not be released and will be in danger of loss of life or physical integrity. Hostage taking is considered a War crime and is absolutely prohibited.
Means and methods of warfare
Even in war not everything is allowed. Various means and methods are prohibited, including … Hostage taking
Terrorism
The concept of “terrorism” has not yet been defined in International law. International law, Human rights and international humanitarian law nonetheless do prohibit many terrorism related acts and activities. In fact, according to international humanitarian law, acts generally considered as acts of terrorism, such as … hostage taking, are prohibited both in international and non-international armed conflict. Moreover, international humanitarian law explicitly prohibits acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population.
War crimes
War crimes are grave breaches of the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 protecting persons and objects as well as other serious violations of the laws and customs that apply to an international or non-international Armed conflict. War crimes include notably: … Hostage taking 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, pp. 22, 29, 39 and 40.
[emphasis in original]
In 2010, in its Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
3.3 Increasing use of guerrilla tactics…
The appearance of non-State actors technically inferior to their government adversaries has favoured the growth of guerrilla tactics. …
Even if the civilian population provides important support to the insurgents, it is nevertheless made the object of terrorist acts (… hostage-taking) under the guise of punitive actions, intimidation, propaganda or to incite ethnic or religious tensions. …
International humanitarian law in force treats these cases in a relatively complete manner, binding non-State and State actors alike. …
International humanitarian law also clearly prohibits attacks against the civilian population. The same applies for abductions, …
3.4 … and of anti-guerrilla tactics
Apart from the direct fight against insurgents, international humanitarian law also addresses other anti-guerrilla tactics. … If members of militias or opposition groups fall into the hands of the government they benefit from the protection of art. 75 of [the 1977] Additional Protocol I as well as that of art. 3 common to the [1949] Geneva Conventions. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, 17 September 2010, Sections 3.3 and 3.4, pp. 11–12 and 15.
[footnotes in original omitted]