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Switzerland
Practice Relating to Rule 89. Violence to Life
Switzerland’s Military Manual (1984) and Teaching Manual (1986) provide that enemy civilians shall not be murdered. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre, Manuel 51.7/III dfi, Armée suisse, 1984, p. 34; Droit des gens en temps de guerre, Programme d’instruction fondé sur le Manuel 51.7/III “Lois et coutumes de la guerre”, Cours de base pour recrues de toutes les armes 97.2f, Armée suisse, 1986, p. 43.
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) states that it is prohibited to make an attempt on the lives of the wounded and sick. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Articles 69 and 147.
The manual further provides that wilful killing of protected persons (wounded and sick, medical personnel, prisoners of war, inhabitants of occupied territory and enemy civilians on national territory) is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. Examples provided include “killing prisoners of war or letting them die of starvation”. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 192.
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states:
5 Restriction of fundamental freedoms
32 Due to the so-called guarantee of the intangible core, the following freedoms are inalienable and can never be restricted:
1 the right to life (prohibition of the death penalty also under the military criminal code …);
34 The right to life entails an absolute protection against intentional violence to life. According to Swiss legislation, the following situations however do not represent a violation of the essential principle:
1 legitimate acts of war resulting in the death of a person …
36 Due to the mission of the army, fundamental rights and freedoms may be restricted during military service. The inviolable core of fundamental freedoms can never be affected by these restrictions; it must be protected and respected at all times.
17 Sanctions for violations of the international law of armed conflict
237 The following in particular are criminal offences: … intentional killing outside of war hostilities[.] 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, §§ 32, 34, 36 and 237.
[emphasis in original]
Switzerland’s Military Criminal Code (1927), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states in a chapter entitled “War crimes”:
Art. 111
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than five years for any person who commits, in the context of an international armed conflict, a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely one of the following acts against persons or objects protected under one of these Conventions:
a. murder;
2 Acts covered by paragraph 1 committed in the context of a non-international armed conflict are equivalent to grave breaches of international humanitarian law if they are directed against a person or object protected by that law. 
Switzerland, Military Criminal Code, 1927, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Article 111(1)(a) and (2).
[footnote in original omitted]
The Code also states:
Art. 5
1 In times of war, in addition to the persons mentioned in art. 3 [Personal conditions] and 4 [Extension in case of active service], the following are subject to military criminal law:
1. Civilians who make themselves culpable of one of the following offences:
d. genocide [Art. 108] or crime against humanity [Art. 109] (Part 2, chapter 6) … ;
5. foreign military persons who make themselves culpable of genocide [Art. 108] or a crime against humanity [Art. 109] (Part 2, chapter 6)[.]
Chapter 6 – Genocide and crimes against humanity
Art. 108
The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of life or a custodial sentence of not less than ten years for any person who with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial, religious, ethnical, social or political group, as such:
a. kills members of the group or causes serious bodily or mental harm to them;
Art. 109
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than five years for any person who, as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against the civilian population:
a. intentionally kills a person;
b. kills a number of persons with premeditation or inflicts on the population conditions of life suited to bring about its destruction, with the intent to destroy it in whole or in part. 
Switzerland, Military Criminal Code, 1927, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 5(1)(1)(d) and (5), 108(1)(a) and 109(1)(a)–(b).
[footnotes in original omitted]
Switzerland’s Penal Code (1937), as amended in 2009, states
[The following] are to punished with life imprisonment, 10 years’ imprisonment or less: anyone who, with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial, religious or ethnic group:
a. has killed members of the group. 
Switzerland, Penal Code, 1937, as amended in 2009, Article 264(a).
Switzerland’s Penal Code (1937), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states under the title “War crimes”:
Art. 264c
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than five years for any person who commits, in the context of an international armed conflict, a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely one of the following acts against persons or objects protected under one of these Conventions:
a. murder;
2 Acts covered by paragraph 1 committed in the context of a non-international armed conflict are equivalent to grave breaches of international humanitarian law if they are directed against a person or object protected by that law. 
Switzerland, Penal Code, 1937, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Article 264c (1)(a) and (2).
[footnote in original omitted]
In 2005, in a report in response to a parliamentary postulate on private security and military companies, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
International humanitarian law is aimed not only at states. It also contains numerous provisions for individuals and even civilians to observe. Perhaps the most well known example is Article 3 common to all four Geneva Conventions, according to which persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed “hors de combat” by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated human[e]ly, without violence to life and person, in particular mutilation, torture and cruel treatment. 
Switzerland, Report by the Swiss Federal Council on Private Security and Military Companies, 2 December 2005, Section 5.3.2, p. 46.
[footnote in original omitted; emphasis in original]
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
War crimes
War crimes are grave breaches of the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 protecting persons and objects as well as other serious violations of the laws and customs that apply to an international or non-international Armed conflict. War crimes include notably: wilful killing[.] 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 40.
In 2010, in its Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
3.4 [Increasing use] of anti-guerrilla tactics
Apart from the direct fight against insurgents, international humanitarian law also addresses other anti-guerrilla tactics. … If members of militias or opposition groups fall into the hands of the government they benefit from the protection of art. 75 of [1977] Additional Protocol I as well as that of art. 3 common to the [1949] Geneva Conventions. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, 17 September 2010, Section 3.4, p. 15.
[footnotes in original omitted]
In 2012, Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued a press release entitled “Switzerland calls for an investigation into the massacre in Houla”, which stated:
Switzerland condemns in the strongest possible terms the massacre in Houla [Syria], in which almost 100 people were killed including 32 children aged 10 or under. It calls for an international investigation to establish the facts and those responsible for this abominable slaughter, which could constitute a war crime.  
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, “Switzerland calls for an investigation into the massacre in Houla”, Press Release, 27 May 2012.
In 2012, in a statement at the 19th Special Session of the UN Human Rights Council, the representative of Switzerland stated:
Switzerland condemned in the strongest terms the heinous massacre of more than a hundred civilians, including dozens of children, at El-Houleh in the night from 25th to 26th May. The facts and the responsibility for what may constitute a war crime … have to be more accurately established. 
Switzerland, Statement by the representative of Switzerland at the 19th Special Session of the UN Human Rights Council, 1 June 2012.
In 2012, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on children and armed conflict, the permanent representative of Switzerland stated:
[T]he situation of children affected by armed conflict remains alarming on a global scale. Children continue to be killed …
Pressure must be increased on persistent perpetrators. To that end, a close cooperation between the Security Council and national and international courts seeking to end impunity for serious violations of international humanitarian law is vital. 
Switzerland, Statement by the permanent representative of Switzerland before the UN Security Council during a debate on children and armed conflict, 19 September 2012.
In 2013, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council during a debate on the human rights situation in Palestine and other occupied Arab territories, the representative of Switzerland stated: “Our country condemns the extrajudicial execution of seven individuals in Gaza last November. We urge the authorities in Gaza to conduct an independent investigation and bring to justice those responsible.” 
Switzerland, Statement by the representative of Switzerland before the UN Human Rights Council during a debate on the human rights situation in Palestine and other occupied Arab territories, 18 March 2013.